Food for thought: Exploring the origins of culinary terms
At an Indian restaurant, I’m transported by the tantalizing spices and tasty dishes. When I eat out Italian, I savour the rich and creamy sauces. In Japanese cuisine, I’m amazed by the visual presentation of the dishes. If you’re like me, flavours, aromas, textures and colours take you away. But how many of us realize how far the vocabulary of food has travelled?
English words borrowed from afar
Words from foreign languages make us think of exotic places and unusual flavours. I’m sure it comes as no surprise to you that the English language has borrowed many such words. Note that the language from which English has borrowed these words is not necessarily the language from which these words originated. When it comes to language contact, there’s often an intermediary!
Here are a few examples of English food terms borrowed from other languages. Some might surprise you…
|English words borrowed from other languages||Source language|
|bratwurst, Emmenthal, kirsch, lager, noodle, pretzel, pumpernickel, sauerkraut, schnapps, schnitzel, strudel, vermouth||German|
|apricot, coffee, couscous, falafel, orange, saffron, shawarma, spinach, syrup, tabbouleh, tahini, tajine||Arabic|
|beef, café au lait, casserole, cream, croissant, cuisine, custard, eclair, mayonnaise, meringue, mousse, mustard, omelette, pastry, quiche, sauce, soufflé||French|
|avocado, barbecue, chorizo, daiquiri, empanada, fajita, gazpacho, guacamole, jalapeno, maize, maté, nacho, paella, quinoa, salsa, sangria, tapa, tortilla, vanilla||Spanish|
|amaretto, arugula, bergamot, broccoli, cauliflower, espresso, farfalle, lasagna, latte, macaroni, spaghetti, tiramisu, vermicelli, zucchini||Italian|
|baklava, bulgur, dolma, hummus, pilaf, raki, shish kebab, yogourt||Turkish|
English words created in Canada
From Canada’s Indigenous peoples, English borrowed words such as “saskatoon” berries and “pemmican” (dried meat mixed with fat and berries), as well as the names of animals enjoyed for their meat, like caribou, moose, sockeye, muskie and geoduck.
We’ve also invented names for home-grown dishes:
- Beaver Tail (Ontario)
- Nanaimo bar (British Columbia)
- schmoo torte (Manitoba)
English words used in other languages
If English has borrowed food-related words, then you can be sure that English food terms have found their way into other languages as well. Take the humble sandwich: its name is well entrenched in French, Italian and Spanish!
And who hasn’t heard of expressions such as “apporter son lunch,” “prendre un cocktail” or “préparer des muffins” in French? Terms like “hamburger,” “bacon” and “fast food” are also well known to Francophones.
Food is even the basis for many English idioms. Have you ever wondered why there are so many expressions with the word “salt”: worth one’s salt, take something with a grain of salt, the salt of the earth? In ancient times, salt was highly valued and was used as an item of trade and a form of currency.
And here’s another example: when things are going well, we say everything is peaches and cream; when things are not going well, we say they have gone sour! I’m not feeding you a bunch of baloney when I say that words linked to food are used in a great variety of ways.
To finish off, how about trying a food-themed quiz? I’m sure the Language Portal of Canada’s quiz Food clichés 1 will whet your appetite. You can find the “Food clichés” series in our quizzes on vocabulary, under Idiomatic expressions.
Now, it’s your turn to make our mouths water. What are your favourite culinary words and expressions? Which ones make you chuckle? Share your thoughts in a comment!
Adapted by Josephine Versace, Language Portal of Canada
The opinions expressed in posts and comments published on the Our Languages blog are solely those of the authors and commenters and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Language Portal of Canada.
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