Navigateur linguistique

Le Navigateur linguistique permet de faire une recherche par mots clés ou par thème pour trouver rapidement réponse à des questions sur la langue ou la rédaction en français et en anglais. Pour en apprendre davantage sur cet outil de recherche, consultez la section À propos du Navigateur linguistique.

Première visite? Découvrez comment faire une recherche dans le Navigateur linguistique.

Rechercher par mots clés

Champs de recherche

Rechercher par thème

Faites une recherche par thème pour accéder rapidement à toutes les ressources linguistiques du Portail associées à un thème en particulier.

À propos du Navigateur linguistique

Le Navigateur linguistique cherche simultanément dans tous les outils d’aide à la rédaction, jeux et billets de blogue du Portail linguistique du Canada. Il vous donne accès à tout ce dont vous avez besoin pour bien écrire en français et en anglais : articles sur des difficultés de langue, recommandations linguistiques, tableaux de conjugaison, suggestions de traductions et bien plus.

Pour trouver la traduction d’un terme ou la réponse à vos questions d’ordre terminologique dans un domaine spécialisé, consultez TERMIUM Plus®.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Résultats 1 à 10 de 146 (page 1 de 15)

Making letters and emails gender-inclusive

An English post about the Translation Bureau’s recommendation on gender-inclusive writing in correspondence.The Translation Bureau recently published a linguistic recommendation on gender inclusivity in correspondence. In it, we describe some simple techniques you can use to write letters and emails that are inclusive of all gender identities. Understanding gender identity According to the Translation Bureau’s Gender and sexual diversity glossary, gender identity is “a person's internal and deeply-felt sense of being man or woman, both, or neither.” Someone who doesn’t identify with the masculine or feminine gender is referred to as having a non-binary gender identity. The solution to a current issue Our recommendation on gender inclusivity in correspondence addresses a very current issue. Let’s put things into context. In 2017, the Government of Canada announced that Canadians could now indicate a gender other than male or female when applying for a passport. And some provincial governments have also implemented a gender-neutral choice on identification documents like driver’s licences and health cards. As a result, government departments and other organizations turned to us for advice on the following question: How do you draft correspondence that is inclusive not only of both sexes but also of non-binary gender identities? Our recommendation answers that question. Gender-inclusive correspondence Certain parts of a letter have traditionally included an indication of gender. For example, in the inside address, the receiver’s name usually begins with a courtesy title (most often, either “Mr.” or “Ms.”) that reflects the gender of the receiver. And the salutation usually contains the same courtesy title: “Dear Ms. Brown,” “Dear Mr. Smith.” Moreover, when we don’t know the receiver’s name, we have been told in the past to use a salutation like “Dear Sir or Madam” in order to include both sexes. This last solution is part of what we call “non-sexist writing”: writing that is inclusive of both men and women. The problem with these formulas is that a non-binary person may not identify with them. In order to be inclusive of both sexes and all gender identities, a new approach is needed. Our recommendation Our recommendation explains what we think is the best approach for gender inclusivity when you are writing a letter or an email to the following audiences: individuals whose gender is unknown non-binary individuals (that is, individuals who do not identify with either the masculine or the feminine gender) a diverse group of people (so that no member of the group feels excluded) In our recommendation, we show you how to make the receiver’s address, the salutation, and the body of your message inclusive. To see what we advise, go to the Bureau’s recommendation on gender-inclusive writing in correspondence. Of course, in cases where you know the receiver identifies with the masculine or feminine gender, you can rely on the standard practices for business writing and use courtesy titles like “Mr.” or “Ms.” or other indications of gender. But in cases where you don’t know, use the principles outlined in our recommendation, to be as inclusive as possible. We encourage you to read our recommendation. Do you think it will be useful for your organization or business? Do you already use some of these techniques for gender-inclusive writing in your workplace? Tell us what you think in the comments section.
Source : Blogue Nos langues (billets de collaborateurs)
Nombre de consultations : 271 282

Inclusive writing – Guidelines and resources

The main page of the “Inclusive writing” section, which lists guidelines and resources for inclusive writing.
Consult in-depth articles on the principles and techniques of inclusive writing in English, and access other resources on the topic. On this page Guidelines for inclusive writing Principles of inclusive writing Gender-inclusive writing techniques Representation of non-binary gender in written communications Resources for inclusive and respectful language Quick reference sheet on inclusive writing Additional information Guidelines for inclusive writing The Guidelines for Inclusive Writing are designed to help the federal public service and any other organization produce writing that is free of discrimination based on sex, gender, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, disability or any other identity factor. To learn how this content was developed, read the page History of the Guidelines for Inclusive Writing. Not everyone will agree with all the options presented in the Guidelines. The Guidelines were developed to provide a variety of possible solutions to issues you might encounter in drafting an inclusive text. They are not designed to be applied mechanically in every context. For definitions of some of the terms used in the Guidelines, see the page Inclusive writing: Glossary. For information on the principles and techniques of inclusive writing in French, consult the French guidelines for inclusive writing (in French only). Principles of inclusive writing This part of the Guidelines will help you understand the purpose of inclusive writing and will outline principles for writing respectful and non-discriminatory text. Show all Hide all Background and principles The article Inclusive writing: Background and principles provides a definition of inclusive writing and lists five major principles to help you write more inclusively. It includes the following sections: Background Definition of inclusive writing Principles of inclusive writing Principle 1: Use what works best Principle 2: Respect people’s wishes Principle 3: Make choices that are respectful of diversity Principle 4: Write clearly and effectively Principle 5: Be consistent Gender-inclusive writing techniques It’s important to be aware of unnecessary references to gender in your writing and to strive to be gender-inclusive: that is, inclusive of men, women, and individuals of other genders. This section provides a variety of techniques and solutions for producing gender-inclusive texts. Show all Hide all Replacing or omitting a gendered pronoun These articles provide a range of useful techniques to help you avoid the use of the gendered singular pronouns “he” and “she” and their different forms: Pluralize the noun Use the singular “they” Use an article Omit the pronoun Repeat the noun Address the reader directly Use the imperative Use the pronoun “who” Use the pronoun “one” Use the passive voice Use sentence fragments Rewrite the sentence Making correspondence gender-inclusive The article Gender-inclusive writing: Letters and emails explains how you can ensure that the parts of a letter or email are gender-inclusive. It includes the following sections: Introduction Inside address Salutation Tailoring your message The article Inclusive writing: Tailoring your message discusses how to tailor your message to make it inclusive, that is, how to adapt a text to meet the needs of a target audience or to take other factors into account. It includes the following sections: General information about tailoring your message Tailoring to recipients Representation of non-binary gender in written communications Members of gender-diverse communities have put forward various techniques for writing English texts that correspond to their realities. The articles below present some of these techniques (including the use of gender-neutral pronouns) and examine issues related to translating gender-inclusive texts from French. Show all Hide all Guidelines for writing to or about non-binary individuals The article Gender-inclusive writing: Guidelines for writing to or about non-binary individuals presents techniques that you can use in various contexts to make your writing inclusive of non-binary individuals. It includes the following sections: Introduction: Writing to or about non-binary individuals The term “non-binary” General recommendations Always listen and follow the individual’s lead Pronouns and neopronouns The singular “they” Neopronouns Variations in pronoun use Courtesy titles and nouns Gender-inclusive courtesy titles Gender-inclusive nouns Guidelines for translating from French The article Gender-inclusive writing: Guidelines for translating from French examines issues related to the translation of gender-inclusive texts from French, including the translation of the gender-neutral French pronoun iel. It includes the following sections: Introduction: Gender inclusivity and translation Translating text about non-binary individuals Translating other gender-inclusive text Resources for inclusive and respectful language An important aspect of inclusivity is the use of respectful language. The resources below will help you to find the most appropriate wording for the texts you draft. Show all Hide all Gender-inclusive nouns The article Gender-inclusive writing: Gender-inclusive nouns suggests gender-inclusive alternatives for gendered nouns and expressions of various types. It also examines the issue of pronoun use with gender-inclusive nouns. It includes the following sections: Introduction: Gendered nouns and inclusive solutions Occupational titles Expressions containing “man” or “woman” Terms denoting relationships Use of the singular “they” with gender-inclusive nouns Inclusionary: A collection of gender-inclusive solutions The Inclusionary provides you with a wide variety of gender-inclusive alternatives to gendered words and expressions. The Interdepartmental Working Group on Inclusive Writing developed this tool to be used in conjunction with the Guidelines for Inclusive Writing, in order to maximize the practical options available to users. Inclusionary: A collection of gender-inclusive solutions Guide on Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Terminology Designed to promote an understanding of concepts related to equity, diversity, accessibility and inclusion, this bilingual guide contains definitions and usage notes for key terms in these fields. It was developed by the Interdepartmental Terminology Committee on Equity, Diversity and Inclusion in response to the Call to Action on Anti-Racism, Equity, and Inclusion in the Federal Public Service. Guide on Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Terminology Glossaries These glossaries developed by Translation Bureau terminologists provide the English and French equivalents for key terms relating to accessibility and to sexual and gender diversity. Accessibility glossary Gender and sexual diversity glossary Quick reference sheet on inclusive writing This quick reference sheet on inclusive writing summarizes the main principles of inclusive writing and gives examples of practical techniques you can apply. It also contains a list of resources designed to help you write inclusively. Consult it online or download the printable PDF. Additional information Inclusive writing: Glossary History of the Guidelines for Inclusive Writing Inclusive writing – French guidelines and resources (in French only) Collection of Canadian language resources: Gender-inclusive writing
Source : Writing Tips Plus (difficultés et règles de la langue anglaise)
Nombre de consultations : 160 374

The singular “they” is gaining acceptance

An English blog post on the growing acceptance of the singular “they.”Everyone knows that in English, third-person singular pronouns are “he,” “she,” “one” and “it.” We’ve moved past the notion that the male pronouns can stand in for all humans. But that leaves us with constructions like the one below, right?    “Everyone should take his or her books.” Well, actually, no. If you do some digging into the history of English usage, you’ll discover that the rule about male pronouns being used to stand in for male and female was an invention of Victorian grammarians. And that it used to be common to use “they” when referring to a person whose gender you didn’t know. As James Harbeck points out in his blog post called “they”, “… for centuries, English speakers used ‘they’ for gender-indeterminate third person singular, and no one complained.” Even Shakespeare used it. Things changed in the 1700s Harbeck goes into a bit of detail, if you want to read more about how this imposed rule came about. Not surprisingly, it was influenced by beliefs, not by speaking and writing patterns that people commonly use. But singular “they” has stood its ground In fact, the singular “they” now has 2 uses: One is for referring to people when you’re not sure of their gender and you don’t want to use “he” Example: “Everyone should take their books.” The other is for referring to people who don’t identify with “he” or “she” as a gender Example: “Chris should take their books.” There are some fancy names for the two uses, but they can be hard to remember, especially if you aren’t into that aspect of grammar. Gretchen McCulloch, a linguist, sums it up nicely, saying that the two types of singular “they” are specific and nonspecific. She gave examples in a tweet, quoted below: “Nonspecific singular they: ‘someone left their umbrella’ Specific singular they: ‘Alex left their umbrella’" Here’s what people are doing now The “rule” that “they” can’t be used in the singular is deeply rooted in people’s minds. So are editors, linguists and style guides saying anything about it? Yes, they are, and they’re certainly saying a lot. It’s been a hot topic among language professionals for some time, and it really peaked in recent years. Here are some of the most significant announcements. The American Dialect Society declared the singular “they” its Word of the Year in 2015; in 2020, they deemed it to be the Word of the Decade for 2010 to 2019 The Associated Press allows “they” as a singular pronoun when a writer is referring to people who don’t use gendered pronouns The 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style allows it in some cases “They” as a substitute for the generic “he”: recommends avoiding it “They” to refer to a specific person: allows the use of “they” to refer to “a specific, known person who does not identify with a gender-specific pronoun such as ‘he’ or ‘she’” The American Psychological Association and the Modern Languages Association now endorse using both specific and generic singular “they” The Government of Canada says that gender-specific language should not be used in legislation and offers the singular “they” as one option to avoid this The Associated Press and Chicago Manual of Style positions are more conservative than what many editors are recommending, as shown by discussions in various online communities of practice. Many editors are encouraging both uses of the singular “they.” But it looks funny You’ll run into people who say that it’s incorrect or it looks funny or they don’t like it. No one is saying we have to use it. But saying someone can’t or shouldn’t use it is wrong. Learn more Read up on the history of the singular “they” and the discussions language professionals are having about it so that you can decide what you’ll do (and what you’ll say to people who still say it’s wrong to use). I’ve compiled the following list: Over 100 articles on the singular “they” (DOC) And if you’ve found any other resources on the topic, feel free to share them in the comments below.
Source : Blogue Nos langues (billets de collaborateurs)
Nombre de consultations : 109 844

Inclusive writing: Glossary

A list of specialized terms related to inclusive writing and their definitions.
The Guidelines for Inclusive Writing include some terms that are specialized or that are used in a very specific sense. The definitions below can help you to understand some of the principles and techniques presented in the guide. gender “The behavioural, cultural and psychological traits associated with an array of gender identities […] in a given society.” These gender identities include, but are not limited to, man and woman. Source: Guide on Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Terminology gender binary The division of gender into the two distinct and unvarying categories of man and woman. gendered “That is organized or separated by gender, or that is associated with a gender,” most often a binary gender (that is, man or woman). Source: Gender and Sexual Diversity Glossary gender identity “A person's internal and deeply felt sense of being a man, a woman, both, neither, or somewhere along the gender spectrum.” Source: Guide on Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Terminology gender-inclusive Inclusive of all genders, binary and non-binary. Synonym: gender-neutral generic “they” The pronoun “they” or any of its forms used with a non-specific singular antecedent such as “anyone,” “everyone,” “an employee,” etc. (for example, “Everyone submitted their report”). iel A French gender-neutral neopronoun used by some non-binary individuals. inclusive writing Writing that uses a set of principles and techniques designed to promote inclusion and respect for diversity and to eliminate all forms of discrimination based on sex, gender, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, disability or any other identity factor. See the article Inclusive writing: Background and principles. Mx. A gender-neutral courtesy title used by some non-binary individuals and by those who simply prefer not to specify their gender. It is pronounced “miks.” neopronoun A new pronoun created to designate a person who does not identify with masculine or feminine pronouns. non-binary “Referring to a person whose gender identity does not align with a binary understanding of gender such as man or woman.” Source: Gender and Sexual Diversity Glossary singular “they” The pronoun “they” or any of its forms used to refer to a person whose gender is unknown. Also, a pronoun for some individuals with a non-binary gender identity. specific “they” The pronoun “they” or any of its forms used with a specific singular antecedent (for example, “Riley submitted their report”). stereotype A preconceived idea that is widely held, but often inaccurate and offensive, about a race, a nationality, a sexual orientation, a gender identity, an ethnic group or any other identifiable group. Additional information Inclusive writing – Guidelines and resources Gender and sexual diversity glossary Gender-inclusive writing: Guidelines for writing to or about non-binary individuals Gender-inclusive writing: Use the singular “they” Guide on Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Terminology
Source : Writing Tips Plus (difficultés et règles de la langue anglaise)
Nombre de consultations : 63 384

Inclusionary: A collection of gender-inclusive solutions

An English writing tool providing gender-inclusive alternatives for gendered nouns and verbs.
The Inclusionary contains a list of gendered words, along with suggestions for inclusive solutions. It was designed to provide writers, editors and translators with a starting point for writing inclusively in English, in accordance with the techniques outlined in the Guidelines for Inclusive Writing. Not everyone will agree with all the solutions provided in the Inclusionary. Some solutions may not apply in certain contexts. For example, the Inclusionary provides alternatives to gendered terms for family members. Of course, these gendered terms (“mother,” “father,” etc.) are perfectly appropriate in many contexts and don’t need to be consistently avoided. The gender-inclusive alternatives aren’t meant to be used in every context, but rather in those contexts where the gender of the person referred to is non-binary or is unknown. You must therefore exercise judgment in applying the proposed solutions. To learn more about this tool, visit the About the Inclusionary page. Help us improve the Inclusionary by filling out the suggestion form. User guide There are three ways to search this guide: 1. Search in the Inclusionary index Select a letter to browse the Inclusionary alphabetically. Then click on an entry to view its contents. 2. Search by keyword in the Inclusionary Begin typing the word you’re looking for. As you type, a real-time search filter will open the relevant entries and highlight the characters entered in the search field. For best results, type the entire word you’re looking for. Note that the index will disappear when you use the search field. To access the index, simply clear the search field. 3. Use the "Show all" button Click on "Show all" to open up all the entries in the Inclusionary. You can then either browse through the entries or press the "Ctrl" and "F" keys simultaneously on your keyboard and then search by term in the "Search" window of your browser. Unfortunately, this search tip doesn’t work with all types of devices. Top of page Suggestion form User guide Contextual Menu document.getElementById('inclusionary-floating-right-menu').style.display='block';
Source : Writing Tips Plus (difficultés et règles de la langue anglaise)
Nombre de consultations : 54 189

Gender-inclusive writing: Letters and emails

An article on how to make letters and emails gender-inclusive.
On this page Introduction Inside address Salutation Additional information Introduction Gender-inclusive writing is increasingly becoming standard practice in correspondence. To draft gender-inclusive correspondence, omit any references to gender from the various sections of a letter or email when you’re writing to an individual whose gender is unknown to you (Note: Do not assume gender on the basis of an individual’s given name.) a non-binary individual whose courtesy title is unknown to you (see Guidelines for writing to or about non-binary individuals) a group of individuals of diverse genders The paragraphs below explain how to make specific sections of a letter or email gender-inclusive in the cases listed above. (Of course, when you’re writing to a specific individual and you know that person’s gender and courtesy title, you can follow the standard practices for correspondence.) Inside address The inside address is the receiver’s address. It includes the name of the person you’re writing to and the person’s address. The inside address appears on the first page of the letter. When you’re writing a letter or email to a specific person, omit the courtesy title (Mr., Mrs., Ms.) in the inside address and on the envelope. Instead, use the person’s given name or names (or initials) and last name, followed by the person’s address. Inside Address Example of a gendered inside address in a letter and an inclusive solution Gendered version Inclusive solution Ms. Justine Teresa Ames 515 Concord Court Gardenton, NS B2X 9F6 Justine Teresa Ames (or J. T. Ames) 515 Concord Court Gardenton, NS B2X 9F6 Envelope Example of a gendered name and address on an envelope and an inclusive solution Gendered version Inclusive solution MS JUSTINE TERESA AMES 515 CONCORD COURT GARDENTON NS B2X 9F6 JUSTINE TERESA AMES (or J T AMES) 515 CONCORD COURT GARDENTON NS B2X 9F6 Note: On envelopes, use the Canada Post format for addresses. (For example, addresses are written all in capitals, with no punctuation.) Salutation When you’re writing a letter or email to a specific person, omit the courtesy title from the salutation. Instead, write “Dear” + given name or names (or initials) + last name + colon. Examples of inclusive salutations for a specific person Gendered version Inclusive solution Dear Mr. Smith: We are happy to inform you that… Dear P. T. Smith: We are happy to inform you that… Dear Ms. Kumar: We have received your request… Dear Amrita Kumar: We have received your request… When writing a letter or email to an unknown receiver or when writing a form letter, use a generic salutation, followed by a colon: Examples of inclusive salutations for an unknown receiver or for a form letter Gendered version Inclusive solution Dear Sir or Madam: Dear Colleague: Dear Sir: Dear Homeowner: Dear Madam or Sir: Dear Constituent: Dear Madam: Dear Customer Service Manager: Note: The noun or nouns after “Dear” are also capitalized. In an email message, in addition to the salutations listed above, you can use the salutation “Hello,” followed by a comma. Additional information Inclusive writing – Guidelines and resources Inclusive writing: Glossary Gender-inclusive writing: Guidelines for writing to or about non-binary individuals
Source : Writing Tips Plus (difficultés et règles de la langue anglaise)
Nombre de consultations : 28 960

Embracing the singular “they” as a gender-neutral pronoun

An English blog post on the use of the singular “they” as a gender-neutral pronoun.Almost nothing about being transgender has been easy for me. Luckily, I’m English-speaking, which means there’s a very simple way to use the pronouns that work best for me. The singular use of “they” and its other grammatical forms (“them”/“theirs”) is the most comfortable pronoun usage for me. I’m a genderqueer, transgender person whose gender presentation is more masculine-of-centre. What does all of that mean? Respect and inclusion It means I’m a human being just like you, who deserves the same amount of respect as my other colleagues. It also means that I don’t feel comfortable being referred to as “male” or “female”; and while I will accept masculine pronouns, using neutral pronouns when speaking of me is the best way to not exclude me. We have an incredible capacity and ability to continually grow the English language, adapting and evolving as our society does. We have many opportunities to grow ourselves, interpersonally, at work and in our wider social circles, by being self-aware and self-educating and by moving with the times, as it were. Evolution of singular “they” The use of singular “they” has been around for centuries, from William Shakespeare to Jane Austen to Charles Dickens. More recently, singular “they” has become normalized via the protections that have been put in place for genderqueer and gender non-conforming (or non-binary) individuals. This is certainly in part thanks to Canada’s Bill C-16. Having basic human rights protections against discrimination towards transgender persons is a great step forward for Canada. As editor Gael Spivak also points out in her blog post, singular “they” has been around for hundreds of years, and it’s here to stay. I’ve had many people ask me what the point is, why I make things harder for myself, why I can’t just “pick one” (meaning “he” or “she”), or inquire about the importance of pronouns and their proper usage. Personal pronouns are linked to identity Pronouns are important as they teach people how to properly refer to the person they’re speaking about. They show people the best way to respect me. They’re important as a part of my identity and an expression of who I am. I know I’m genderqueer as surely as a cisgender person knows they’re not transgender! I don’t use singular “they” in order to make things harder for others, to be trendy, or to push any kind of agenda. I use it because it makes me feel like myself. It’s the right and most comfortable fit for me. Perhaps you don’t feel as attached to your pronouns, but perhaps you’ve never had to assert them as valid. Maybe you haven’t had to assert your personal pronouns as a part of your identity while others have purposefully misused these words to attack you … while others have decided for you that, on the basis of their perception of who you are, you aren’t who you say you are. Learning to use neutral pronouns One of the problems I’ve encountered in the workplace is how to properly use “they” as a singular pronoun. I don’t demand that everyone in my workplace use singular “they” for me, as I’m also comfortable being referred to in the masculine. However, I do normalize singular “they” when speaking about clients or other colleagues, depending on the context. I do tell people that I use “they” pronouns, I wear a “they/them” pronoun pin with my identification card, and I have produced educational materials on neutral pronouns and how to use them. So, how exactly do you use them? Here are a few examples with some fun facts about myself: Christopher is not in today; they went to Iceland on vacation. They have a cat named Agent S. They are always finding ways to help educate others about LGBTQ2+ issues. Using singular “they” pronouns, or any of the neopronouns, takes practice and patience. Patience for yourself as you retrain your brain, and patience from the person whose pronouns you’re attempting not to botch. “Practice makes perfect” holds true for the singular use of “they” pronouns. I invite you to practise: you can start by thinking of all the instances where you already automatically use “they” in the singular. For example, if you receive a phone call but the caller hangs up, you may be likely to say, “I don’t know, they hung up” when someone asks you who called. What other instances can you think of where you have already begun to normalize the use of “they” as a singular pronoun?
Source : Blogue Nos langues (billets de collaborateurs)
Nombre de consultations : 28 659

Gender-inclusive writing: Guidelines for writing to or about non-binary individuals

An article on how to write to or about non-binary individuals.
On this page Introduction: Writing to or about non-binary individuals The term “non-binary” General recommendations Always listen and follow the individual’s lead Pronouns and neopronouns The singular “they” Neopronouns Variations in pronoun use Courtesy titles and nouns Gender-inclusive courtesy titles Gender-inclusive nouns Additional information Introduction: Writing to or about non-binary individuals The grammar and sentence structure of the English language provide many options for writing to or about individuals whose genders do not align with the man-woman binary. By applying readily available tools of the language while respecting individuals’ diverse identities, we can create much more inclusive spaces for non-binary people through our writing. This article will discuss tools and basic principles for working toward this goal. The term “non-binary” It’s important to note that “non-binary” is not the universal or only term used by individuals who identify outside of the strict binary categories of “man” and “woman” or “male” and “female.” There are other terms that individuals use to more accurately describe their experience and identity outside of the gender binary, including the following: agender genderqueer gender nonconforming bigender genderfluid In addition, some Indigenous people identify as Two-Spirit or identify with a more specific term from their community’s history and language. These identities are rooted in traditional understandings of sexuality and gender that are not related to Western and colonial binary categories. All of the above terms can describe very different experiences and are not interchangeable with each other or with the term “non-binary.” At the same time, the experiences of people who do identify with the term “non-binary” can also be very diverse, and not everyone will feel comfortable with the same pronouns or forms of address. This article sets out general guidelines based on common practices in English. It can provide a respectful start, but there’s no substitute for following the lead of the individual concerning how they refer to themselves and how they want to be referred to. Note that when the term “non-binary” is used in this article, it is for the sake of brevity and not to imply that “non-binary” is the universal term for all individuals outside of binary gender. General recommendations In formal writing in English, we often don’t need to refer to an individual’s gender at all. Applying the basic gender-inclusive writing techniques will help you avoid making assumptions about the gender of people you’re writing to or about. In cases where gender is unknown or irrelevant, these techniques allow you to write inclusively by avoiding gendered pronouns (“he” or “she”), gendered courtesy titles (“Mr.,” “Mrs.” or “Ms.”) and gendered nouns (for example, “chairwoman”). In this way, these techniques do contribute to creating a comfortable environment for individuals who identify outside of the gender binary. However, different considerations apply when you’re writing to or about a specific individual whose gender is known to be outside of the gender binary. Some of the techniques may be similar, but in these cases, the main focus should be on what is requested by the specific individual. Always listen and follow the individual’s lead In a positive and inclusive workplace, people of all genders may clearly signal how they want to be referred to. For example, they might include their pronouns and occupational titles in their signature block provide basic information about their pronouns or occupational titles publicly on the Web (for example, on a professional networking platform) signal, in their own correspondence or in conversation, what pronouns, courtesy titles, occupational titles or nouns they are comfortable having applied to them. Paying attention to these signals is an essential starting point for respectful and inclusive writing, especially about people outside of the gender binary. Every individual is the authority on their own experience and their own identity; non-binary individuals often have an especially strong interest in sharing this information, because it helps to prevent others from making incorrect assumptions about them. If this information is not evident from what is available to you, the best course of action is often simply to ask how the individual would prefer to be referred to and addressed. In many cases, simply asking will be appreciated as a sign of respect for inclusivity. However, please be discreet and mindful of the context when asking an individual to share information about their gender identity with you. For example, it may not be tactful to ask this question of an individual when you’re in a large group setting or on an email chain with many participants. It’s almost always more appropriate to ask the individual privately how to refer to them in a given context or setting. Pronouns and neopronouns In many cases, individuals who do not identify with the binary of “man” or “woman” also do not find the pronouns “he” or “she” to be fully appropriate for them. In English, the singular “they” and its variations provide one readily available solution with a long history in the language. Some individuals, however, use one of a number of other pronouns usually known as neopronouns. And other individuals opt for a combination of pronouns or for different pronouns in different contexts. The singular “they” Some individuals who do not identify with “he” or “she” use “they” as their pronoun. Although “they” is often thought of as a plural pronoun, its use with a singular meaning has a long history in English and is common in informal use. Moreover, it has become standard practice in formal settings: every major language authority includes a section on how to use the singular “they” in reference to a non-binary individual. The table below illustrates the various forms of the singular “they.” Forms of the singular “they” Subject Object Possessive determiner Possessive pronoun Reflexive They prepared the briefing. I acknowledged them. Their briefing was helpful to management. That briefing is theirs. They wrote the briefing themselves [or themself]. As the table shows, the singular “they” has two possible reflexive forms: “themselves” (the standard form) and “themself.” Although “themself” is not yet in widespread use and is labelled non-standard in most dictionaries, it has been approved by some major style manuals or their publishers (for example, Chicago Manual of Style, Modern Languages Association, American Psychological Association) for use in reference to an individual whose pronoun is the singular “they.” Also note: When “they” is used as a subject, verbs that follow it should always be plural (for example, “are” rather than “is”). Example of how to conjugate a verb after the pronouns “she” and “they” With pronoun “she” With pronoun “they” Over the course of a workday, Riley finds that she has to deal with a lot of unexpected situations. Over the course of a workday, Riley finds that they have to deal with a lot of unexpected situations. There is no situation in English in which it would be correct to write “they is” or “they has,” and that does not change as we expand our use of the singular “they” in formal writing. At the same time, the only situation in which we would use a plural verb for a non-binary individual is after the pronoun “they.” A verb that follows the proper name of a non-binary individual, such as Riley in the above example, should always be singular: “Riley is” or “Riley has.” We would never write “Riley are” or “Riley have.” Similarly, if we are referring to Riley by the noun “the manager,” we would never write “the manager are.” In all of these cases, following what sounds intuitive and natural is the best guideline for correct usage. Neopronouns Some individuals use pronouns other than “he,” “she” or “they.” These are generally new words known as neopronouns that have been proposed for the specific purpose of providing non-gendered options. There are any number of possible neopronouns, but an example that has several decades of history is “ze” (pronounced “zee” and sometimes spelled “zie”) and its possessive form “hir” (pronounced “heer”). The forms of the neopronoun “ze” and “hir” Subject Object Possessive determiner Possessive pronoun Reflexive Ze prepared the briefing. I acknowledged hir. Hir briefing was helpful to management. That briefing is hirs. Ze wrote the briefing hirself. Although neopronouns are less commonly used than the singular “they,” it’s essential to respect and affirm individuals in their gender identities and to use their correct pronouns. In contexts where the individual you’re writing about has requested or indicated the use of a neopronoun, follow their guidance, and ask questions if you’re unsure of how to apply the neopronoun in your writing. Variations in pronoun use For many people who identify outside of the gender binary, gender identity is complex. It isn’t always fixed and constant. As a result, pronoun usage can also be complex and shifting. For some individuals, there may be more than one possible pronoun that they find acceptable in reference to them. For example, an individual’s signature block might indicate “she/they” as their pronouns. This generally signals that either set of pronouns (“she/her” or “they/them”) is appropriate to use when writing about that person. In some contexts, however, they might have a stronger preference for one or the other. If you’re unsure which is best to employ, you might want to ask the individual directly. Some individuals, especially those who identify as genderfluid, may prefer different pronouns on different days or occasions. They will often signal these shifts clearly to those around them, and you should respect their identities when you write about them. Non-binary individuals may have pronoun preferences that are strongly context-dependent. There can be many reasons for this, including comfort in workplace contexts that are still insufficiently inclusive. Always be considerate and flexible when an individual expresses which pronouns they want used to refer to them in a given piece of writing. Lastly, some non-binary people may feel entirely comfortable with the exclusive use of “he” or “she” as their pronoun. Courtesy titles and nouns When writing about non-binary people, you’ll need to apply many of the general strategies for gender-inclusive writing and carefully consider your choice of terms and vocabulary. The sections below suggest how you can avoid gendered courtesy titles and nouns. Gender-inclusive courtesy titles When writing to a non-binary person in a formal context, you can omit the gendered courtesy titles “Mr.,” “Ms.” or “Mrs.” and instead use the individual’s full name. Some people who don’t identify with binary gender prefer an alternate courtesy title. In English, the most common gender-neutral title is “Mx.” (most often pronounced “miks”). However, it’s best to check with the individual whether they prefer “Mx.,” a different title or no title at all. Example of a gendered courtesy title and gender-neutral solutions Gendered courtesy title Gender-neutral solutions Ms. Smith has dedicated many years to developing more inclusive solutions to gendered writing. Dylan Smith has dedicated many years to developing more inclusive solutions to gendered writing. Mx. Smith has dedicated many years to developing more inclusive solutions to gendered writing. The same approaches should be applied in the salutation and other contexts in which you’re addressing a non-binary individual directly, as the following table illustrates. Examples of gendered and gender-neutral salutations Gendered salutation Gender-neutral salutation Hello, Mr. Park,Please find attached … Hello, Jiwoo Park,Please find attached … Dear Mr. Park,This message is to follow up … Dear Mx. Park,This message is to follow up … For more information about applying gender-inclusive principles in correspondence, including correspondence addressed to an individual whose gender is simply unknown, see the article Gender-inclusive writing: Letters and emails. Gender-inclusive nouns When writing about a person who does not identify with binary gender, take care to use gender-inclusive nouns and terms. For guidelines and examples indicating how to do so, please see the article Gender-inclusive writing: Gender-inclusive nouns. Examples of gendered and gender-inclusive nouns Gendered version Inclusive solution Marie will be taking her maternity leave starting next week. Marie will be taking their parental leave starting next week. I met the new consultant through my brother, Claude. I met the new consultant through my sibling, Claude. Additional information Inclusive writing – Guidelines and resources Inclusive writing: Glossary Gender-inclusive writing: Gender-inclusive nouns Gender-inclusive writing: Use the singular “they” Gender-inclusive writing: Letters and emails
Source : Writing Tips Plus (difficultés et règles de la langue anglaise)
Nombre de consultations : 19 996

Inclusive writing: Quick reference sheet

A quick reference sheet summarizing the main inclusive writing principles and techniques, with a list of resources on this topic
This quick reference sheet summarizes the main principles of inclusive writing and gives examples of practical techniques you can apply. It also contains a list of resources designed to help you write inclusively. On this page Principles of inclusive writing Gender-inclusive writing techniques Representation of non-binary gender Resources for inclusive and respectful language Printable PDF version of the quick reference sheet Additional information Principles of inclusive writing Our guidelines for inclusive writing are based on five main principles. Apply the technique or techniques that fit your specific situation, taking into account the type of text you’re writing and the audience you’re writing for. When you’re writing to or about someone, use the person’s specified courtesy title and pronouns. Choose words, expressions and examples that are in keeping with diversity so as to avoid stereotypes. Use the principles of inclusive writing in conjunction with the principles of clear and effective communication. Apply inclusive writing techniques throughout each text and throughout all communications within your organization. Gender-inclusive writing techniques Use the techniques outlined below to write gender-inclusively. Use gender-inclusive nouns Technique Examples Replace gendered occupational titles An ombuds (not “ombudsman”) must deal objectively with all requests. Cleaning staff (not “cleaning ladies”) begin work at 6 p.m. Every server (not “waiter” or “waitress”) must wear a uniform. Replace expressions containing “man” or “woman” They fought for the rights of the average person (not “the common man”). Replace gendered terms denoting relationships (in general contexts or in cases where gender is unknown) Members may bring spouses or partners (not “wives or girlfriends”) to the event. The child was picked up by a sibling (not “brother” or “sister”). Replace or omit a gendered pronoun Technique Examples Pluralize the noun Nurses must carefully record their patients’ symptoms (not “A nurse … her patients’ symptoms”). Use the singular “they” Generic singular “they”: If an employee is injured at work, they have a duty to inform their direct supervisor (not “he or she has a duty to inform his or her supervisor”).Specific singular “they” (used by some persons outside the gender binary): Morgan submitted their report. Use an article Each person attending must show a ticket (not “his or her ticket”) upon entry.A student must complete all the required courses (not “his required courses”) by year end. Omit the pronoun No child may participate without parental permission (not “his or her parents’ permission”). Repeat the noun If a first-time user wants to view content on the site, the user (not “he”) must create an account. Address the reader directly You must provide your complete contact information (not “The applicant must provide his or her …”). Use the imperative Ensure that your leave balances are correct (not “Each employee must ensure that his leave balances …”). Use the pronoun “who” A property owner who disagrees with the assessment can file an appeal (not “If a property owner disagrees, he …”). Use the pronoun “one” Numerical “one”: A tenant in Vancouver will probably pay higher rents than one in St. John’s (not “than she would in St. John’s”).Impersonal “one”: Under the Canadian Charter, one has the right to act in accordance with one’s conscience (not “a citizen … his conscience”). Use the passive voice Dependent clause: A server has the right to keep any tips (that are) received from patrons (not “tips that she receives”).Main clause: When the repair person cannot obtain a discontinued part, a generic part will be substituted if possible (not “he will substitute a generic part”). Use sentence fragments The successful administrative assistant will have the following qualities: - attention to detail (not “she will be detail-oriented”) - excellent interpersonal skills (not “she will have excellent interpersonal skills”) Rewrite the sentence The motorist should signal before a lane change and then check to ensure the lane is clear (not “and then he should check”).After finding the ideal property, a home buyer should arrange for a home inspection (not “When he finds the ideal property”).Medical help is on site in case a participant suffers an injury (not “injures himself”) during the event. Make correspondence gender-inclusive Parts of the letter or email Examples Inside address (if receiver’s gender or courtesy title is unknown) Robin MaxwellR. T. Maxwell Salutation (if receiver’s gender or courtesy title is unknown) Dear Robin Maxwell: Dear R. T. Maxwell: Dear Parts Manager: (example of a job title for a receiver whose name is unknown) Dear Homeowner: (example of a gender-inclusive noun for a form letter) Hello, (in an email) Tailor your message Context Examples Tailoring to recipients who are non-binary Use the person’s specified courtesy title if you know it; for example: Dear Mx. Baldwin: Representation of non-binary gender Members of gender-diverse communities have put forward various techniques for writing English texts that correspond to their realities. Since individual usage varies, it's important to respect each person’s wishes with regard to pronouns and courtesy titles. Writing to or about non-binary individuals Issue Recommendations Pronouns and neopronouns When writing about a non-binary individual, use the person’s specified pronoun: singular “they” a neopronoun (for example, “ze/hir”) “he” or “she” Gender-inclusive courtesy titles When writing to or about a non-binary individual, use the person’s specified courtesy title if you know it (for example, “Mx.”) if in doubt, omit the courtesy title, and use the person’s first name or initials with the last name: - Cameron Clarkson - C. R. Clarkson Gender-inclusive nouns When writing about a non-binary person, use terms that are gender-inclusive: “parental leave” (not “maternity leave”) “police officer” (not “policeman” or “policewoman”) “sibling” (not “brother” or “sister”) “spouse” (not “husband” or “wife”) Translating text about non-binary individuals Issue Recommendations and examples Translating the French pronoun “iel” When translating the pronoun “iel,” try to find out what pronoun the person uses in English if you can’t find out the person’s pronoun, use the singular “they” and its forms: French: Iel a lancé sa ligne de vêtements en 2000. English: They launched their clothing line in 2000. Note: A person who uses the gender-inclusive pronoun “iel” in French may use any of a variety of pronouns in English, including neopronouns. Thus, it’s important not to assume that “iel” is always best translated by the singular “they.” Translating other gender-inclusive text When translating a text about a non-binary individual whose gender is unclear, use the singular “they” use the other gender-inclusive techniques listed above Resources for inclusive and respectful language The resources below will help you find the right words to write inclusively and respectfully. List of resources on respectful and inclusive language Title Description Inclusionary: A collection of gender-inclusive solutions A collection of gender-inclusive alternatives to gendered words and expressions. Guide on Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Terminology A bilingual guide designed to promote an understanding of concepts related to equity, diversity, accessibility and inclusion. Accessibility Glossary A glossary containing 342 concepts in the fields of accessibility, sociology of work and technical aids for persons with disabilities. Gender and Sexual Diversity Glossary A glossary containing 193 concepts related to gender and sexual diversity. Printable PDF version of the quick reference sheet Inclusive writing guidelines and resources: Quick reference sheet (PDF, 412 KB) Additional information Inclusive writing – Guidelines and resources Inclusive writing: Glossary
Source : Writing Tips Plus (difficultés et règles de la langue anglaise)
Nombre de consultations : 16 157

Inclusive writing: Background and principles

An article that defines inclusive writing and lists five guiding principles.
On this page Background Definition of inclusive writing Principles of inclusive writing Principle 1: Use what works best Principle 2: Respect people’s wishes Principle 3: Make choices that are respectful of diversity Principle 4: Write clearly and effectively Principle 5: Be consistent Additional information Background There is broad consensus today on the importance of writing more inclusively to promote equity and the equal participation of all members of society. In fact, when people feel respected, understood and represented in communications, they are more inclined to contribute to the community. How can you make your writing inclusive? Whether you’re drafting an email, a report, an advertisement or any other type of document, you can produce an inclusive text, using the key principles listed below, in combination with various inclusive writing techniques (see the section on gender-inclusive writing techniques in the Guidelines for Inclusive Writing). Definition of inclusive writing Inclusive writing is writing that uses a set of principles and techniques designed to accomplish two goals: to promote inclusion and respect for diversity to eliminate all forms of discrimination based on sex, gender, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, disability or any other identity factor The terms “gender-inclusive writing” and “gender-neutral writing” are narrower in scope and are used to designate writing that is focused more specifically on equal representation of all genders. Principles of inclusive writing The approach to inclusive writing proposed in our guidelines is based on five key principles that reflect ongoing developments in Canadian society and current English usage. These general principles should serve as a guide to help you in applying the gender-inclusive writing techniques listed on the page Inclusive writing – Guidelines and resources. Principle 1: Use what works best Apply the technique or techniques that fit your specific situation, taking into account the type of text you’re writing and the audience you’re writing for. The English language has several techniques you can use to make your writing gender-inclusive. For example, you can use the singular “they” or the passive voice, or address your reader directly. No one technique will meet all your communication needs. You need to consider both the nature of the text and the audience when choosing techniques and combining them to craft a clear piece of writing. For instance, addressing the reader directly can draw the reader in and give your text a more personal touch. On the other hand, using the passive voice can make your text sound more formal. And if you’re writing to non-binary individuals, other techniques might be useful (see our article Gender-inclusive writing: Guidelines for writing to or about non-binary individuals). Principle 2: Respect people’s wishes When you’re writing to or about someone, use the person’s specified courtesy title and pronouns. Individuals’ wishes vary when it comes to courtesy titles and pronouns (for example, Mr., Ms., Mx., he, she, singular “they”). These wishes must be respected when we’re writing to someone (as in an email) or writing about them (as in a biography). For more information, see our article Gender-inclusive writing: Guidelines for writing to or about non-binary individuals. Principle 3: Make choices that are respectful of diversity Choose words, expressions and examples that are in keeping with diversity so as to avoid stereotypes. Inclusive writing avoids terminology that conveys bias or stereotypes, puts different genders on an equal footing and accurately reflects the diversity of the population. It is therefore important to choose your words with care. See the section on inclusive and respectful language on the page Inclusive writing – Guidelines and resources for more information and for examples of inclusive solutions. Principle 4: Write clearly and effectively Use the principles of inclusive writing in conjunction with the principles of clear and effective communication. The primary objective of communication is to convey a message that is understood by its recipient. A dense or needlessly complex piece of writing can quickly become difficult to understand. You should therefore choose inclusive writing techniques wisely and ensure that clarity is maintained. When properly applied, inclusive writing techniques enable you to produce accurate, concise and impactful texts. Principle 5: Be consistent Apply inclusive writing techniques throughout each text and throughout all communications within your organization. First of all, be consistently inclusive. You shouldn’t be content with using inclusive writing techniques merely in a few passages or solely in the title of your document. A concern for inclusivity should resonate throughout your writing. Be consistent as well in applying inclusive writing techniques. Organizations can help by establishing inclusive writing guidelines to ensure their texts reflect consistent choices. For instance, your organization’s guidelines could indicate in which contexts you should address the reader directly or in which contexts you should use the passive voice. Additional information Inclusive writing – Guidelines and resources Gender-inclusive writing: Guidelines for writing to or about non-binary individuals Inclusive writing: Glossary
Source : Writing Tips Plus (difficultés et règles de la langue anglaise)
Nombre de consultations : 8 715