Main page content

What Gallicisms are and why we use them

On this page

Posted: 
March 19, 2018
Written by: Fatima Rizzo , Language Portal of Canada

“I filled up on hors d’oeuvres earlier, so I think I’ll just order from the à la carte menu rather than having the table d’hôte.”

What do you notice about that sentence? Probably that it contains 3 French expressions, right? You probably also noticed that the sentence didn’t sound strange to you. That’s because “hors d’oeuvres,” “à la carte” and “table d’hôte” are French expressions that we commonly use in English. Did you know that there’s a name for the French words and expressions that people use when speaking other languages? They’re called “Gallicisms,” which comes from the word “Gallic,” meaning “French.” And we use them for a number of reasons. Let’s explore a few together.

1. Cultural ties

Certain words and expressions may be so rooted in a culture that it would feel strange to use the English equivalent (if there even is one). In parts of Quebec, such as Montreal and Gatineau, where English and French co-exist, words like “dépanneur,” “cabane à sucre,” “autoroute,” “guichet,” “stage,” “Régie,” “terrasse” and “chalet” are part of everyday speech, because they’re so tied to the province’s culture that using them is natural and maybe even necessary if we want to fit in and be understood.

To put it into perspective, when we think of “going to the chalet,” we automatically think of the Laurentians. When we think of “going to the cottage,” our minds shift to the Muskokas or the Kawarthas.

2. Language mixing

If we’re bilingual or multilingual and speak French often, we’ve likely used a French word or phrase in the other language. Maybe a word simply came to mind in French first either because that word, or to be more precise, that concept, is more common in the French culture. Or maybe we’d just returned from a full day at the office with mostly French-speaking co-workers, and we were still thinking in French.

Whatever the reason, when we speak French and one or more other languages regularly, the constant contact between the languages makes it easy to use a French word or phrase unintentionally instead of the equivalent in the other language.

3. Lack of a suitable word or expression

Sometimes, there’s just no suitable word or expression in another language to express a certain concept. For example, English has no equivalent for the French expressions “je ne sais quoi” and “joie de vivre.”

Sure, we can find English words or phrases to describe the same concepts. For “je ne sais quoi,” we could say that something has an “indescribable quality” or “a certain something.” And for “joie de vivre,” we could say that someone has a “love of life.” But none of those phrases fully convey the meaning of the French expressions. So when we’re faced with such a gap and a French expression can fill it, we borrow it!

4. Literal translation

Gallicisms can also occur when we translate a French expression word for word into another language. The temptation to do this can be strong if we’re fluent in French and can’t think of the right way to say something in another language. “Close the light” (rather than the idiomatic “turn off the light”) is a perfect example of a literal translation of “fermer la lumière.” For examples of other common Gallicisms that result from literal translations, such as “opening hours” and “providers of service,” check out the section of the University of Ottawa’s writing guide called Translation problems and Gallicisms.

Do you notice yourself using Gallicisms in everyday speech? If so, which ones do you use and why? Let me know in the comment section below!

Disclaimer

The opinions expressed in posts and comments published on the Our Languages blog are solely those of the authors and commenters and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Language Portal of Canada.

categories-bullets

About the author

Fatima Rizzo

Fatima worked as a terminologist at the Translation Bureau for 7 years before accepting an assignment as a language analyst at the Language Portal of Canada in 2017. Creating quizzes and other content for the Portal is her delight and privilege.

Add a comment

Join in the conversation and share your comments!

Please consult the Government of Canada’s Commenting Policy before adding your comment. The Language Portal of Canada reviews comments before they’re posted. We reserve the right to edit, refuse or remove any question or comment that violates the Government of Canada’s Commenting Policy.

By submitting a comment, you permanently waive your moral rights, which means that you give the Government of Canada permission to use, reproduce, edit and share your comment royalty-free, in whole or in part, in any manner it chooses. You also confirm that nothing in your comment infringes third party rights (for example, the use of a text from a third party without his or her permission).

Comments

There are currently no comments.

Date modified: