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Results 1 to 10 of 82 (page 1 of 9)

versus, v., vs.

A writing tip on using the term versus and its abbreviations v. and vs.
Versus, meaning “against, opposed to” or “in contrast to,” is often abbreviated to vs. in sports coverage and to v. in legal documents. Versus and its abbreviations are not italicized. Headline: Canada vs. Belarus in Hockey Final Judge Whitcombe will hear Weiner v. The King next week. Avoid abbreviating versus in day-to-day writing. The coach studied the runners’ speed versus (not vs.) their endurance.
Source: Writing Tips Plus (English language problems and rules)
Number of views: 52,002

Canadian dollar (symbol) (Linguistic recommendation from the Translation Bureau)

A recommendation from the Translation Bureau on the symbol for the Canadian dollar in English and French.
To standardize the way the symbol for the Canadian dollar is written in English and French, the Translation Bureau makes the following recommendation. Symbol for the Canadian dollar in English In general texts In an English document, when you need to specify the type of dollar (Canadian, American, Australian, etc.), the Translation Bureau recommends using the symbol Can$ to represent the Canadian dollar. Write the country symbol (Can) first, immediately followed by the dollar sign ($) and the dollar figure: Can$25.99 The abbreviation Can$ may also be written entirely in upper case: CAN$25.99. Do not place the dollar sign before the country symbol: Can$1.65 (not $Can1.65) Do not put a space between Can and the dollar sign: Can$2.50 (not Can $2.50) Note: The shorter variant C$ is another symbol frequently used for the Canadian dollar. However, the Translation Bureau does not recommend this symbol, since it has a slight risk of ambiguity: it is also used to represent the Nicaraguan córdoba oro, and occasionally the Cayman Islands dollar as well. In the area of finance In the area of finance, especially in texts discussing currency values and exchange rates, the universal code CAD is the usual symbol used. CAD is the international currency code established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to represent the Canadian dollar. It is composed of the country code (CA), followed by the letter “D” for “dollar.” Write the code first, followed by a non-breaking space and the dollar figure: CAD 350 million CAD 125.00 = USD 121.22, at an exchange rate of 0.9697 Note that the dollar sign is redundant if used with the international code CAD: CAD 800 000 (not CAD$, CAD $, $CAD or $ CAD) Symbol for the Canadian dollar in French In general texts In a French document, when you need to specify the type of dollar (Canadian, American, Australian, etc.), the Translation Bureau recommends using the symbol $ CA to represent the Canadian dollar. The symbol $ CA is composed of the dollar sign ($) and CA, the country code established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to represent Canada. The dollar sign is placed to the right of the dollar figure. Use a non-breaking space after the dollar figure, and between the dollar sign and the country code: 25,99 $ CA Note that the symbols Can and CDN, with or without the dollar sign, are not recommended in French: 1,65 $ CA (not $ Can, $ CDN) In addition, do not place the dollar sign after the country code, and do not omit the space between the dollar sign and the country code: 2,50 $ CA (not CA $ or CA$) Note: The symbol $ CAN is also correct. However, out of a desire for standardization, the Translation Bureau recommends $ CA for use in French. In the area of finance In the area of finance, especially in texts discussing currency values and exchange rates, the universal code CAD is the usual symbol used. CAD is the international currency code established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to represent the Canadian dollar. It is composed of the country code (CA), followed by the letter “D” for “dollar.” Write the dollar figure first, followed by a non-breaking space and the code: 350 000 CAD 125,00 CAD = 121,22 USD, selon un taux de change de 0,9697 Note that the dollar sign is redundant if used with the international code CAD: CAD 800 000 (not CAD$, CAD $, $CAD or $ CAD) Additional information See American dollar (symbol) (Linguistic recommendation from the Translation Bureau).
Source: Writing Tips Plus (English language problems and rules)
Number of views: 11,840

Abbreviations

An English-language quiz on how to deal with abbreviations in our writing.Abbreviations (shortened forms of full terms) are everywhere, so we should know how to deal with them in our writing. Try this quiz to see how you measure up!1. What is the correct way to write the abbreviation for “extension” after a phone number?123-456-7890 ext. 555123-456-7890, ext. 555123-456-7890, Ext. 5552. Which one of the following lists contains only initialisms?NATO, RCMP, UFORCMP, UFO, HIVNAFTA, B.C., CAN3. Each sentence below contains the abbreviation for “etcetera.” Which sentence follows the punctuation rules for the use of this abbreviation?The supply clerk ordered paper, pens, paper clips, etc, after lunch.Check that you have the right browser (Netscape, Internet Explorer, etc.)I enjoy reading all types of books: history, fiction, non-fiction, etc.4. What is the best way to address a letter to someone with a medical degree (MD)?Dr. John SmithersDr. Jane Hughes, MDMs. Ella Jean5. Which of the following lists of abbreviations is correct?St., Rd., Blvd., Ave.St., Rd., Blvrd., Ave.Str., Rd., Bvd., Av6. Which of the following statements is true?You should never abbreviate the months of the year.Use a period to abbreviate every month but May.Abbreviate months in very formal writing only.  
Source: Quizzes on the Language Portal of Canada
Number of views: 11,274

italics: legal references

A writing tip on when to italicize the titles of statutes and court cases.
The following guidelines explain how to deal with legal references in running text. Court cases The names of court cases appear in italics in both legal and general writing: Cooper v Hobart Graat v R In Jordan House Hotel Ltd v Menow, the Supreme Court ruled that the owner of a bar must ensure that intoxicated customers have a safe way home. Legislation In general writing, titles of legislation appear in roman type (i.e. not in italics): The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act was passed in 2012. Under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, the Immigration and Refugee Board is empowered to hear cases involving refugee matters. However, in legal writing and in many Canadian government documents, titles of legislation are placed in italics: The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act was passed in 2012. Under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, the Immigration and Refugee Board is empowered to hear cases involving refugee matters. Do not italicize short forms such as “the Act” or “the Charter”: The Act defines environment as including land, water and air; organic and inorganic matter; living organisms; and natural systems. Do not italicize the abbreviation for the title of a piece of legislation, especially when it follows the title written in full. Readers not familiar with the legislation may think that the abbreviation is part of the title. Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA)
Source: Writing Tips Plus (English language problems and rules)
Number of views: 8,723

business letters: inside address

An article on how to format the inside address of a business letter.
[A similar topic is discussed in French in the article ADRESSES (RÈGLES D’ÉCRITURE).] The inside address is the second standard part of a business letter. It comes after the heading and before the salutation. On this page Information to include General guidelines Placement Spacing Name of receiver Business title Street address Apartment Postal box number City and province Postal code Addresses outside Canada Company as receiver Information to include The inside address is the receiver’s address. It includes the name of the person you are writing to, followed by the person’s home address or by the person’s business title, department (if applicable), company name and company address: J. T. Ames 515 Concord Court Gardenton, NS  B2X 9F6 OR Ms. Amrita Kumar Director of Communications Waverley College 1400 Meadowvale Road Pleasantville, MB  R2N 6Z9 Note that no comma is used at the end of each line of the address. General guidelines Placement Unless it must be moved to fit properly into a window envelope, the inside address is usually placed four to eight lines below the date, flush with the left margin. (If the letter is long, you may place the inside address two spaces below the date.) Spacing Single-space the inside address. Name of receiver Use the appropriate courtesy title (Mr., Ms., Mrs., Miss, Prof., Dr., etc.), followed by the first and last names or by the initial(s) and last name. In the case of a woman, use the courtesy title Ms. unless you are sure that she prefers Miss or Mrs. If you don’t know the gender of the receiver, use the name without a gender-specific courtesy title (e.g. J. T. Ames, Chris Carver). If you do not have the name of a receiver, you may address your letter to a job title: Sales Manager ACME Inc. Suite 102 1169 Parkwood Place Wheaton, BC  V9Z 2Y8 Business title Capitalize all words in the title except the articles a(n) and the, and short prepositions or conjunctions of under four letters (and, of, etc.): Chair of the Board President and Chief Executive Officer If the receiver’s name and business title are both short, you may put them on the same line, with a comma between: P. T. Kelly, President If the title is longer, place it on a separate line below the name. If it runs past the centre of the page, drop the end of the title to a second line and indent two spaces: Ms. Gwynneth R. Cornthwaite Director of Marketing and International   Research Street address The street address consists of the building number and the street name. Do not put a comma between the building number and the street name: 239 Forest Street Spell out words such as Street, Avenue or Boulevard. If the street address includes a compass point (e.g. north, south, east, west), write it with an initial capital: 515 Martindale Crescent East Apartment Traditionally, the number of an apartment, unit or suite comes after the street name, on the same line. Put a comma after the street name, and use the abbreviation Apt. or the word Unit or Suite before the number: 602 Cobden Road, Unit 900 Alternatively, you can put the apartment, unit or suite number before the building number, with a hyphen between: 900-602 Cobden Road If the street address is long, the number of the apartment, unit or suite can go on the line above: Suite 205 1849 Regency Boulevard Postal box number If the receiver’s address includes a postal box number, use it in place of the street address for mail delivery: Mr. J. Bernstein PO Box 245 Forestvale, NL  A5C M91 In writing the postal box number, do not use the number symbol (#) or the abbreviation No. If there is a station name, place it after the postal box number on the same line, with a comma between: Ms. Alma Basran PO Box 139, Stn. A Sunnymead, AB  T9Y 8Z5 City and province Put the city and province (or territory) on the same line, with a comma and a space between them: Craigston, ON Use the Canada Post abbreviations for provinces and territories, without any periods: Canada Post abbreviations for provinces and territories Provinces and territories Abbreviations Alberta AB British Columbia BC Manitoba MB New Brunswick NB Newfoundland and Labrador NL Northwest Territories NT Nova Scotia NS Nunavut NU Ontario ON Prince Edward Island PE Quebec QC Saskatchewan SK Yukon YT Postal code Use capital letters in the postal code. Put a space between the two sets of characters, and do not include a hyphen: N2X 7B9 You may place the postal code on the same line as the province, with two spaces between them. Do not put a comma between the province and the postal code: Craigston, ON  N2X 7B9 If you prefer, in the inside address (but not on the envelope), you may write the name of the province in full, preceded by a comma. In that case, place the postal code on a separate line below the city and province: Craigston, Ontario N2X 7B9 But be sure to be consistent: write the province and postal code the same way in both the return address (if applicable) and the inside address. Addresses outside Canada Put the name of the country in capital letters on a separate line at the end of the address. Use the abbreviation USA (without capitals) for the United States, but write out the names of all other countries: Ms. Mercedes Gomez 95 Cassandra Crescent New York, NY  12345-6789 USA Company as receiver Sometimes you may need to address your letter to a company rather than an individual. If so, begin the inside address with the company name, and put the relevant department on the line below the company name: Acme Industries, Ltd. Marketing and Research Division 211 Appian Way, Suite 101 Dunbar, AB  T4S 9X2
Source: Writing Tips Plus (English language problems and rules)
Number of views: 7,759

Abbreviations abound

An English quiz on abbreviations.Abbreviations (shortened forms of full terms) are everywhere, so we should know how to deal with them in our writing. Try this quiz to see how you measure up!1. Which example illustrates the correct punctuation to use with a person’s initials?L. D. MillsL, D, MillsL… D… Mills2. How do you correctly punctuate the Latin abbreviation meaning "for example"?e.g.eg.eg3. Which abbreviation is used before the name of an individual who has received an honorary degree?Dr.Hon. Dr.No abbreviation is used.4. Which sentence uses the correct abbreviation for the province of Ontario in formal writing?The film Snow Cake was filmed in Wawa, ON.The film Snow Cake was filmed in Wawa, Ont.The film Snow Cake was filmed in Wawa, O.N.5. Which sentence is correct?They have given out ticket #1 to 100.They have given out ticket Nos. 1 to 100.They have given out ticket Num. 1 to 100.6. Which sentence illustrates the correct way to write specific time in a time zone?The estimated arrival time was 20:14 PST.The estimated arrival time was 20:14 Pacific Standard Time.The estimated arrival time was 20:14 Pacific-Standard-Time7. Which example illustrates the correct way to represent a percentage amounting to one half, using the per cent symbol?50 %50%0.50 %8. How is the word "latitude" abbreviated?latt.lattlat9. What is another correct way to express "eight metres"?8 m8m8 M10. Which of the following abbreviations can be used freely in the body of a text?Assoc.Inc.Corp.  
Source: Quizzes on the Language Portal of Canada
Number of views: 6,914

compass points

A writing tip about how to write compass points.
(A similar topic is discussed in French in the article points cardinaux.) In writing compass points (or compass directions), follow the guidelines below. On this page Capitalize Do not capitalize Hyphenate Abbreviations Capitalize Capitalize when the compass points refer to part of an address: 150 East Dundas Street 111 King St. West abbreviated directions: winds NNW 28 miles SW of the city informal district names: the Eastern Townships the South Shore specific geographic divisions: the Northwest Territories North Vancouver political or administrative rather than simply geographic divisions: the West Western values Western Europe the East Coast the Far North Northern Ireland Do not capitalize Do not capitalize when the compass points are used as purely descriptive terms: southern exposure the north side of the house as compass directions: Go south four blocks. Drive north to get to the highway. as orientations: a garden to the west of the house We live east of Ottawa. for unofficial geographic divisions: northern New Brunswick the west of Saskatchewan the east coast of Canada Hyphenate Compass points containing two directions are written as one word: northeast southwest Compass points containing three directions are hyphenated: north-northeast west-southwest Abbreviations The list below shows the abbreviations for the 16 compass points. Compass point abbreviations Compass Point Abbreviation north N northeast NE northwest NW north-northeast NNE north-northwest NNW east E east-northeast ENE east-southeast ESE south S southeast SE southwest SW south-southeast SSE south-southwest SSW west W west-northwest WNW west-southwest WSW
Source: Writing Tips Plus (English language problems and rules)
Number of views: 6,360

abbreviations: time zones

A writing tip on how to abbreviate time zones.
Time zones are abbreviated when used with a specific time. Note that capitals are used, without periods. 4:30 p.m. EST 7:15 a.m. MST When no specific time is given, time zones are written out in full: Pacific Standard Time Mountain Standard Time The six time zones in Canada and their abbreviations are listed below: Newfoundland Standard Time – NST Atlantic Standard Time – AST Eastern Standard Time – EST Central Standard Time – CST Mountain Standard Time – MST Pacific Standard Time – PST From March to November, when clocks are put ahead one hour, the time zones are on daylight saving time (DST): Newfoundland Daylight Time – NDT Atlantic Daylight Time – ADT Eastern Daylight Time – EDT Central Daylight Time – CDT Mountain Daylight Time – MDT Pacific Daylight Time – PDT
Source: Writing Tips Plus (English language problems and rules)
Number of views: 6,268

Mountain Daylight Time, Mountain Standard Time, MDT, MST

A writing tip on Mountain Daylight Time and its abbreviation.
From April to October, Mountain Daylight Time is observed in Alberta, the Northwest Territories and parts of Nunavut. From October to April, Mountain Standard Time is in effect. The name of the time zone is abbreviated when a specific time is stated; otherwise it is written out in full. The abbreviations MDT and MST are written in upper case, with no periods. Time zones may be stated with either the 12-hour or 24-hour system (e.g. 3:15 a.m. MDT or 03:15 MDT). With its midnight sun in June, Yellowknife hardly needs to observe Mountain Daylight Time. Please be ready for the conference call from Edmonton at 8:30 a.m. MST. Having left Jasper at 15:30 MDT, the train will pull into Vancouver’s Pacific Central Station at 07:51 PDT.
Source: Writing Tips Plus (English language problems and rules)
Number of views: 5,435

thousand, K (thousand)

A writing tip on expressing the number thousand with the letter K.
As a general rule, thousand should be expressed either in words or in numbers. Felicity received five thousand dollars as a graduation present from her grandparents. In his very first job, Patel was making $75,000 a year. The capital letter K is sometimes used informally to represent one thousand (dollars), especially in newspaper headlines. There is no space between the numeral and the letter K, as in 75K. Headline: Lottery winner gets 150K The letter K should not be used as an abbreviation for one thousand (dollars) in formal writing. The grant amounted to $150,000 (not 150K).
Source: Writing Tips Plus (English language problems and rules)
Number of views: 5,481