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and so as a result

Redundancies are words that repeat information unnecessarily. Since the conjunction so indicates result, the expression and so as a result is redundant. Use as a result or so by itself, or use the conjunctive adverb therefore.

  • Redundant: Lise and Mark stopped for dinner, and so as a result they got home late.
  • Recommended: Lise and Mark stopped for dinner; as a result, they got home late.
  • Redundant: The air conditioning was on, and so as a result we were quite comfortable.
  • Recommended: The air conditioning was on, so we were quite comfortable.
  • Redundant: The car wouldn’t start, and so as a result Robert had to take the bus.
  • Recommended: The car wouldn’t start; therefore, Robert had to take the bus.

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