Guide on Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Terminology

Introduction

The Interdepartmental Terminology Committee on Equity, Diversity and Inclusion was established to co-develop a guide on the key terms and concepts related to equity, diversity, accessibility and inclusion in response to the Clerk of the Privy Council's 2021 Call to Action on Anti-Racism, Equity, and Inclusion in the Federal Public Service. Co-chaired by Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC), Women and Gender Equality Canada (WAGE) and the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (TBS), the Committee has representatives from more than 20 federal departments and agencies.

The main objectives of this bilingual guide are to help improve understanding of concepts related to equity, diversity, accessibility and inclusion, and to provide a unified frame of reference for federal departments and agencies. To help meet these objectives and ensure that the perspectives of equity-denied groups were acknowledged and taken into account, Committee representatives went through three rounds of consultations, giving subject-matter experts and people with lived experience from various organizations, departments and agencies an opportunity to provide feedback. These consultations included not only WAGE, TBS, and PSPC, but also the Canada School of Public Service; Canadian Heritage; Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada; Employment and Social Development Canada; Indigenous Services Canada; Library and Archives Canada; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; the Public Service Commission; Statistics Canada; as well as the LGBTQ2 Secretariat, anti-racism secretariats and other parties concerned with equity, diversity, accessibility and inclusion. Over 2000 comments were received, analyzed and taken into consideration.

During the more than 12 months of co-development of the Guide, there were evolving conversations surrounding the inclusion of Indigenous terms. There has been and remains a unique relationship between the Crown and Indigenous Peoples, who have resided here since time immemorial. By including certain Indigenous terms, the Committee does not intend to dilute the importance of this unique relationship, nor does it claim that the Guide is a comprehensive representation of it. The terms are included in order to recognize that Indigenous people are part of the diversity and inclusion conversation, and progress in these areas can contribute to the government priority of reconciliation.

In the context of equity, diversity, accessibility and inclusion, it is clear that the terminology will continue to evolve and never be completely neutral. For this reason, most entries in this guide contain definitions and usage notes that offer explanations on the particular use of the terms. It is not uncommon, for example, for once socially unacceptable terms to be reappropriated by systemically marginalized groups as a marker of pride or belonging. As language evolves, the Guide will be regularly updated and enhanced with new concepts.

In a similar vein, it is important to recognize that not everyone will agree on some of the terms or definitions used to refer to the identity of a person or group of people. While this resource provides guidelines to the federal public service regarding which terms to use, it is always best to address a person or a group of people in the way they prefer.

This guide is meant to be a starting point for users to develop the skills and knowledge necessary to help build a fully inclusive public service and engage with others with empathy, curiosity and reflection. Of course, it does not replace everything that can be learned directly from people with lived experience, nor what can be learned through reading or taking training.

The Committee wishes to thank all those who took the time to participate in meetings, send in comments, and review multiple definitions and usage notes. This endeavour would not have been possible without all those who passionately contributed to the co-development of the Guide on Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Terminology.

User guide

The entries can be displayed in the language of the interface only (English or French) or in a bilingual format by clicking on the hyperlink. In the bilingual format, the English and French sections of the entries appear one after the other according to the interface language. For example, if your interface is in English, the English section will appear first followed by the French section.

There are three ways to search this guide:

1. "Search by index"

Select a letter to browse the guide in absolute alphabetical order, then click on an entry to view its contents.

2. "Search by keywords"

Type the word you are looking for. As you type, a real-time search filter will open the entries that contain the characters and highlight them.

Use of the search field will cause the index to disappear. Simply clear the search field to access the index.

3. "Show all" button

Click on "Show all" to open up all the entries in the guide. You can then either browse through the entries or press the "Ctrl" and "F" keys simultaneously on your keyboard and then search by term in the "Search" window of your browser. Unfortunately, this search tip does not work with all types of devices.

Entries may contain definitions, notes, usage examples and cross-references to related terms as applicable. The type of information may vary from entry to entry and from language to language.

All the terms that appear in the entries are in the index, except for those that are to be avoided. However, when an entry contains several terms, the corresponding information will only appear under the first term of that entry. The other terms of the entry will have a clickable cross-reference to the first term. For example, the term "Aboriginal person" displays a cross-reference to "Indigenous person," which is the first term of that entry. This prevents the same entry from being displayed more than once in the guide when using the "Search by keywords" function or when consulting entries in "Show all" mode.

The numbers in square brackets "[ ]" that follow a term indicate that there are different meanings for this term. The term will therefore appear in more than one entry.

In an entry, the terms with a particular usage mark are at the end of the "Terms" section. All the other terms can be used interchangeably. Context will help determine which term is the best option.

Parts of speech, gender and number (for example, noun, verb, adjective, plural and in French, "nom," "nom masculin," "nom féminin," "nom pluriel," "nom masculin pluriel," "nom féminin pluriel," "adjectif," "adjectif masculin," "adjectif féminin," "verbe") refer to the entire term.

When a definition is cited textually from a source, this source will be displayed at the bottom of the entry.

Examples are not necessarily equivalent in both languages, and some examples may be unique to one language.

The "See also" at the bottom of an entry indicates a cross-reference to related terms.

Each entry contains a modification date.

Note

  • You are viewing this guide in unilingual format. You can also consult the bilingual version.
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Search by index

Navigation menu providing access to the glossary terms, arranged in alphabetical order.

2

2-spirit

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A

ableism

Terms

  • ableism (noun)
  • ablism (noun)

Definition

Prejudice and discrimination against people with a disability.

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ablism

See ableism

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Aboriginal person

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accessibility

Terms

  • accessibility (noun)

Definition

The quality of an environment that enables a person to access it with ease.

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accommodation

Terms

  • accommodation (noun)
  • accommodation measure (noun)

Definition

In the context of work, a measure taken by management based on the personal circumstances of an employee that is designed to enable them to carry out their duties and fully participate in work-related activities.

Notes

Some examples of accommodations are acquiring or modifying equipment, software or devices, modifying work schedules, or providing assistance through support services.

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accommodation measure

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acculturation

Terms

  • acculturation (noun)

Definition

The process by which a person or a group of people from one culture adopts cultural characteristics of another culture while retaining their own culture.

Notes

An immigrant in Canada who speaks English or French outside the home, but speaks another language at home is an example of acculturation.

Not to be confused with "assimilation," in which a person or group of people is pressured or forced to abandon their beliefs, language or customs.

See also

  • assimilation
  • colonization
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ageism

Terms

  • ageism (noun)

Definition

Prejudice and discrimination based on age or on stereotypes related to age.

Notes

Ageism can affect people of all ages, whether they are a child, a young adult or a mature adult.

Examples of ageism in a work context include imposing retirement on older people, assuming young people lack experience and dismissing their input, only providing learning opportunities to younger people and not considering a person for a promotion or a raise because of their age.

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ally

Terms

  • ally (noun)

Definition

A person who actively seeks to learn about the challenges of a person or group of people experiencing discrimination, and who works in solidarity with them to fight against oppression.

Notes

Being an ally is not simply a matter of identity; it involves taking action. Allies can take action in a variety of ways. They can advocate for the rights of those who experience discrimination, or help support their needs. They can also work actively from within social, political or economic structures to challenge and eliminate oppressive policies and practices.

Ideally, an ally recognizes and understands their own privilege, which they can use to help those they have allied with. An ally can also experience discrimination in one area of their life, even if they have certain privileges in another. For example, an Indigenous man may experience discrimination as an Indigenous person but have certain privileges as a man. An Indigenous man can therefore be an ally to women. Similarly, a gay man can be an ally to trans people.

See also

  • allyship
  • privilege
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allyship

Terms

  • allyship (noun)

Definition

A process in which a person becomes involved in efforts to end the discrimination and oppression experienced by a group of people to which the person does not belong.

Notes

Allyship is often broken down into various stages that are all part of a continuum. These stages generally include becoming aware of the issues, becoming more informed and educated, educating others and actively advocating against discrimination and oppression.

See also

  • privilege
  • ally
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anti-racism

Terms

  • anti-racism (noun)

Definition

The conscious opposition to racist theories, attitudes and actions.

Notes

Anti-racism is not just about being against the idea of racism. It is also about taking active steps to fight against it.

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antisemitism

Terms

  • antisemitism (noun)

Definition

Prejudice, hostility, discrimination and hatred towards Jewish people.

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assigned sex

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assimilation

Terms

  • assimilation (noun)

Definition

The process by which a person or group of people is pressured or forced to abandon their beliefs, language or customs and adopt those of the dominant culture.

Notes

Assimilation can lead to the disappearance of a culture.

Not to be confused with "acculturation," in which a person or group of people retains their own culture.

See also

  • acculturation
  • colonization
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audism

Terms

  • audism (noun)

Definition

Prejudice and discrimination against deaf or hard of hearing people.

Notes

Deaf or hard of hearing people can experience audism from hearing people as well as other deaf or hard of hearing people.

Examples of audism include not making an effort to communicate with deaf or hard of hearing people, being unwilling to accommodate their hearing needs and insisting that they conform to hearing society.

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B

barrier

Terms

  • barrier (noun)

Definition

A physical, structural, technological, socioeconomic or cultural obstruction, or one that is related to information, communications, attitudes or mindsets, that hinders the full and equal participation of a person or group of people in society.

Notes

The term "barrier" is defined in the context of people with disabilities in the Accessible Canada Act.

See also

  • systemic barrier
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bias

Terms

  • bias (noun)
  • prejudice (noun)

Definition

A preconceived judgment that is held by a person and that influences their perception of or their behaviour towards another person or group of people.

Notes

Everyone has biases. Several factors contribute to the development of these preconceptions, including culture, education, life experience, comments heard, the media and the influence of institutions.

Biases can be manifested through favouritism towards or discrimination against a person or group of people based on factors such as race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender identity, ability, age, religion or socioeconomic status.

See also

  • unconscious bias
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biological sex

See sex

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biphobia

Terms

  • biphobia (noun)

Definition

The disdain for or hatred of bisexual people or people perceived as bisexual that leads to discrimination or hostility towards them.

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BIPOC

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birth-assigned sex

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Black, Indigenous and non-white people

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Black, Indigenous and people of colour

Terms

  • Black, Indigenous and people of colour (plural noun phrase)
  • BIPOC (plural noun)
  • Black, Indigenous and non-white people (plural noun phrase)

Notes

The abbreviation "BIPOC" is used to refer to people of colour and was designed to emphasize the particular experiences of Black people and Indigenous people with discrimination as contrasted with other non-white groups of people.

Although the abbreviation "BIPOC" is frequently used in verbal and written communication, its use is not accepted by all. Some people believe that it highlights the fact that the different groups named in the abbreviation have different experiences with discrimination, whereas others believe that it lumps together and blurs the distinct identities and experiences of these groups.

Some people prefer the term "person of colour" over "non-white person," or vice versa, for various reasons. For example, the term "person of colour" implies that "white" is not a colour, while the term "non-white person" implies that being a white person is the norm.

Since the abbreviation "BIPOC" refers to a grouping of people, expressions such as "BIPOC person" and "BIPOC people" are redundant and should be avoided.

See also

  • person of colour
  • racialized
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Black person

Terms

  • Black person (noun)
  • Black (avoid, noun)

Definition

A person belonging to any of various population groups of especially African ancestry often considered as having dark pigmentation of the skin but in fact having a wide range of skin colours.Source 1 for term Black person

Notes

Some Black persons may choose to refer to themselves and members of the same racial group as "a Black" or "Blacks"; however, the use of the noun in the singular and the plural by non-Black people can be offensive and should therefore be avoided in favour of using the adjective "Black," such as in "a Black person."

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C

co-development

Terms

  • co-development (noun)

Definition

A process in which people with different perspectives work together on a jointly defined matter to meet common objectives.

Notes

In this process, all parties are responsible for decision-making.

Co-development is based on mutual respect and recognition of the rights and cultural differences of the parties involved. It requires trust, understanding and transparency between the parties and an open and ongoing dialogue.

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colonialism

Terms

  • colonialism (noun)

Definition

A political doctrine by which a country or state takes control of a foreign territory for the purposes of occupying and exploiting it.

See also

  • colonization
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colonization

Terms

  • colonization (noun)

Definition

The process by which a country or state takes control of a foreign territory through its occupation and exploitation.

Notes

Colonization usually involves relocating part of the population from the colonizing country or state to a new territory. The colonizers settle in the new territory while maintaining their allegiance to their country or state of origin.

The colonizers hold power at the expense of the original inhabitants of the territory. This often results in the marginalization of these inhabitants.

Some countries or states used what is known as the doctrine of discovery to justify the colonization of foreign territories.

See also

  • colonialism
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colourism

Terms

  • colourism (noun)
  • shadeism (noun)

Definition

Discrimination based on skin colour, often resulting in people with a lighter skin tone being favoured over those with a darker skin tone.

Notes

Members of a racial or ethnic group can experience colourism from other members of the same group.

See also

  • racism [2]
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cultural appropriation

Terms

  • cultural appropriation (noun)

Definition

The adoption of elements of the culture of a historically marginalized or oppressed group of people, done by people from another culture, in a manner that is seen as inappropriate.

Notes

Cultural appropriation is usually done for personal gain or commercial profit by people belonging to a dominant group. It often reflects a power imbalance between cultural groups.

The use of a stereotypical image of an "Indian" in a logo is an example of cultural appropriation.

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D

decolonization

Terms

  • decolonization (noun)

Definition

A process that consists of challenging and dismantling colonial ideas, values and practices embedded in society in order to restore Indigenous ways of knowing, being and doing.

Notes

Decolonization aims to shift the way Indigenous people view themselves and the way non-Indigenous people view Indigenous people.

See also

  • Indigenization
  • reconciliation
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disability

Terms

  • disability (noun)
  • handicap (avoid, noun, obsolete)

Definition

A physical, mental, intellectual, cognitive, sensory, learning or communication impairment, or a functional limitation, whether apparent or not, and permanent, temporary or episodic in nature, that hinders a person's full and equal participation in society when they face a barrier.

Notes

Although the term "handicap" has long been used to refer to this concept in North America and other English-speaking regions, "disability" is now preferred. Used as a noun, "handicap" is considered to be outdated and can be considered offensive.

See also

  • person with a disability
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disabled person

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discrimination

Terms

  • discrimination (noun)

Definition

The unjust or prejudicial treatment of a person or group of people that deprives them of or limits their access to opportunities and advantages that are available to other members of society.

Notes

The Canadian Human Rights Act sets out the following prohibited grounds of discrimination: race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, marital status, family status, genetic characteristics, disability and conviction for an offence for which a pardon has been granted or in respect of which a record suspension has been ordered.

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diverse workforce

Terms

  • diverse workforce (noun)

Definition

A workforce made up of persons who have a variety of identities, abilities, backgrounds, cultures, skills, perspectives and experiences.

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diversity

Terms

  • diversity (noun)

Definition

The variety of identities found within an organization, group or society.

Notes

Diversity is expressed through factors such as culture, ethnicity, religion, sex, gender, sexual orientation, age, language, education, physical abilities and disabilities, family status or socioeconomic status.

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E

equality

Terms

  • equality (noun)

Definition

The principle of treating everyone in the same manner by ensuring they have access to the same resources and opportunities.

Notes

Equality does not necessarily lead to fair outcomes since it does not consider people's unique experiences and differing situations.

See also

  • equity
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equity

Terms

  • equity (noun)

Definition

The principle of considering people's unique experiences and differing situations, and ensuring they have access to the resources and opportunities that are necessary for them to attain just outcomes.

Notes

Equity aims to eliminate disparities and disproportions that are rooted in historical and contemporary injustices and oppression.

See also

  • equality
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equity-denied group

Terms

  • equity-denied group (proposal, noun phrase)
  • equity-deserving group (noun phrase)
  • equity-seeking group (noun phrase)

Definition

A group of people who, because of systemic discrimination, face barriers that prevent them from having the same access to the resources and opportunities that are available to other members of society, and that are necessary for them to attain just outcomes.

Notes

In Canada, groups generally considered to be equity-denied groups include women, Indigenous people, people with disabilities, people who are part of LGBTQ2+ communities, religious minority groups and racialized people. The types of equity-denied groups may vary based on factors such as geography, sociocultural context or the presence of specific subpopulations.

Some people may prefer the term "equity-deserving group" because it highlights the fact that equity should be achieved from a systemic, cultural or societal change and the burden of seeking equity should not be placed on the group. Others argue that this term could be seen to imply that not all people are deserving of equity.

Some people may prefer the term "equity-seeking group" because it highlights the actions of the communities that fight for equal access to resources and opportunities by actively seeking social justice and reparation.

The term "equity-seeking group" is defined in the context of public service staffing in the Public Service Employment Act.

Not to be confused with "designated groups" as defined in the Employment Equity Act, which are women, Indigenous people, persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities.

See also

  • marginalized group
  • under-represented group
  • equity
  • systemic discrimination
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equity-deserving group

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equity-seeking group

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ethnic group

Terms

  • ethnic group (noun)
  • race [1] (noun)

Definition

A group of people with a common history, heritage or ancestry and shared cultural, linguistic or religious characteristics.

Notes

The use of the term "ethnic group" is preferred to "race" to refer to this concept even though both terms have long been used to mean the same thing.

Not to be confused with the term "race" meaning a group of people sharing common physical characteristics.

See also

  • race [2]
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ethnicity

Terms

  • ethnicity (noun)

Definition

The shared cultural, linguistic or religious characteristics of a group of people having a common history, heritage or ancestry.

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F

First Nation person

Terms

  • First Nation person (noun, Canada)
  • Indian [1] (avoid, noun, Canada)

Definition

In Canada, an Indigenous person who is part of a First Nation or whose ancestors were part of a First Nation.

Notes

A First Nation person can be a status or non-status Indian.

The term "Indian" refers to the legal identity of a First Nation person who is registered under the Indian Act and should therefore only be used in the context of the Indian Act or in specific historical contexts, as it is considered offensive and outdated. However, a First Nation person may choose to refer to themselves as an Indian regardless of context.

The plural form of "First Nation" is used in expressions such as "First Nations persons" or "First Nations people" to highlight the fact that the individuals in a group may come from different First Nations.

The term "First Nation member" is mainly used in the field of government administration and can be inaccurate to refer to the concept of "First Nation person." The term "First Nation member" usually refers to a First Nation person who is listed as a member in a registry.

It is always best to refer to a person or group of people from a specific First Nation by naming the First Nation in question.

See also

  • Indigenous person
  • Métis [1]
  • Inuk
  • Indian [2]
  • First Nations
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First Nations

Terms

  • First Nations (plural noun)

Definition

In Canada, an Indigenous grouping composed of many different nations having their own origin, history and culture, and whose members have called North America home for thousands of years.

Notes

First Nations include status and non-status Indians.

First Nations are one of the three legally recognized Indigenous Peoples in Canada.

See also

  • First Nations
  • Indian [2]
  • Inuit
  • Métis [2]
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G

GBA+

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GBA Plus

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gender

Terms

  • gender (noun)

Definition

The behavioural, cultural and psychological traits associated with an array of gender identities, including female or male, in a given society.

Notes

Gender influences how people perceive themselves and each other. It refers not only to physical, psychological, behavioural and other differences, but also to the meanings and values society associates with male and female, that is, the idea that people have specific social roles and skills because of their sex.

While sex refers to a set of anatomical and physiological characteristics, gender refers to a social construct, and goes beyond the traditionally understood binary concept that there are only two genders (male, female) and that a person's sex assigned at birth aligns with their gender identity.

See also

  • sex
  • gender identity
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Gender-based Analysis Plus

Terms

  • Gender-based Analysis Plus (noun, Canada)
  • GBA Plus (noun, Canada)
  • GBA+ (noun, Canada)

Definition

An analytical approach used to assess the potential effects policies, programs and initiatives may have on diverse groups of people.

Notes

The word "Plus" in the term is used to show that the analysis goes beyond biological (sex) and sociocultural (gender) differences to consider other factors that intersect to determine individual identity. These factors may include ethnicity, religion, age and disability.

The term "Sex and Gender-based Analysis Plus" is sometimes used in a health context.

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gender expression

Terms

  • gender expression (noun)

Definition

The ways in which people present and communicate their gender identity.

Notes

Gender can be expressed, for example, through behaviour, clothing, hair, voice and other aspects of physical appearance. These may or may not conform to societal expectations regarding gender.

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gender identity

Terms

  • gender identity (noun)

Definition

A person's internal and deeply felt sense of being a man, a woman, both, neither, or somewhere along the gender spectrum.

Notes

A person's gender identity may or may not align with the sex they were assigned at birth. Gender identity is not necessarily visible and has nothing to do with sexual orientation. It can be static or fluid.

See also

  • gender
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H

historical trauma

Terms

  • historical trauma (noun)
  • historic trauma (noun)

Definition

A trauma experienced collectively by a group of people sharing a common identity, caused by the oppression of this group through one or more events in the past, and that is usually characterized by the persistence of social and health problems in this group across several generations.

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historic trauma

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homophobia

Terms

  • homophobia (noun)

Definition

The fear or hatred of, or disdain for, homosexual people or people perceived as homosexual that leads to discrimination or hostility towards them.

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I

identity-first language

Terms

  • identity-first language (noun)

Definition

The written or verbal means of expression that communicates the identity of a person by putting emphasis on an impairment, disease, state or disorder being integral to the person's identity.

Notes

Expressions such as "disabled person," "autistic person," "blind person" and "deaf person" are examples of identity-first language.

Identity-first language is contrasted with person-first language, which puts emphasis on a person as an individual rather than on their impairment, disease, state or disorder.

There is no universally agreed-upon approach when referring to disabled people. Because some disabled people prefer identity-first language and others prefer person-first language, it is always best to ask a disabled person how they prefer to be referred to.

See also

  • person-first language
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implicit bias

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implicit prejudice

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inclusion

Terms

  • inclusion (noun)

Definition

The practice of using proactive measures to create an environment where people feel welcomed, respected and valued, and to foster a sense of belonging and engagement.

Notes

This practice involves changing the environment by removing barriers so that each person has equal access to opportunities and resources and can achieve their full potential.

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inclusive language

Terms

  • inclusive language (noun)

Definition

A means of communication that is used to treat people with respect, and that involves using words and expressions that are not considered discriminatory or offensive, and that do not imply the exclusion or stereotyping of particular groups of people.

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inclusive workplace

Terms

  • inclusive workplace (noun)

Definition

In an organization, a work environment where the differences in the identities, abilities, backgrounds, cultures, skills, experiences and perspectives of employees are recognized, valued and leveraged by management and coworkers, which fosters a sense of belonging and involvement for all employees.

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Indian [2]

Terms

  • Indian [2] (noun)

Definition

The legal identity of a First Nation person registered under the Indian Act.

Notes

The term "Indian" is to be avoided unless it is used in the context of the Indian Act or in specific historical contexts, as it is considered offensive and outdated.

Only members of First Nations can be considered Indians under the Indian Act. Métis and Inuit are considered Indigenous Peoples in Canada under certain provisions of the Constitution Act, 1982, but they are not considered Indians under the Indian Act.

See also

  • First Nation person
  • Indigenous person
  • Inuk
  • Métis [1]
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Indigenization

Terms

  • Indigenization (noun)

Definition

The integration of Indigenous worldviews, knowledge and perspectives into the structures of an institution.

Notes

Indigenization should be led by Indigenous people. It allows for the recognition that Indigenous and non-Indigenous worldviews, knowledge and perspectives are of equal value.

There is no single Indigenous worldview; although there may be common points, the worldviews of different Indigenous nations or communities vary from one to another.

See also

  • decolonization
  • reconciliation
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Indigenous person

Terms

  • Indigenous person (noun, Canada)
  • Aboriginal person (noun, Canada)
  • Native person (avoid, noun, Canada)
  • Native (avoid, noun, Canada)
  • Aboriginal (avoid, noun, Canada)

Definition

A person who belongs to one of the three Indigenous Peoples in Canada, namely, First Nations, Inuit or Métis.

Notes

Some Indigenous persons in Canada may choose to refer to themselves as "a Native person" or "a Native;" however, the use of these terms by non-Indigenous people is seen as derogatory.

The term "Aboriginal" used as a noun can be offensive and should be avoided.

See also

  • Inuk
  • Métis [1]
  • Indian [2]
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Indigiqueer

Terms

  • Indigiqueer (adjective)
  • Indigequeer (adjective)

Definition

Referring to an Indigenous person whose gender identity does not align with their sex assigned at birth, or whose sexual orientation falls outside heterosexuality.

Notes

The terms "Indigiqueer" and "Indigequeer" are used by some Indigenous people from LGBTQ2+ communities who do not identify with the dual gender implied in the term "Two-Spirit." They are a blend of the terms "Indigenous" and "queer."

See also

  • Two-Spirit
  • LGBTQ2+
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intersectionality

Terms

  • intersectionality (noun)

Definition

An analytical framework for understanding how aspects of a person's identity (for example, sex, gender, age, ethnicity, class, religion, sexual orientation, ability) combine to create particular forms of discrimination and privilege.

Notes

This framework helps to better understand the cumulative effects of different forms of oppression (for example, racism, sexism, homophobia).

Members of marginalized groups are more likely to face discrimination and prejudice as a result of the interaction of different aspects of their identity.

This concept was coined by American lawyer and law professor Kimberlé Crenshaw in the late 1980s to explain how race intersects with gender to produce unique barriers.

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Inuit

Terms

  • Inuit (plural noun)

Definition

In Canada, an Indigenous People that inhabits or that traditionally inhabited the northern regions and Arctic coasts of Canada known as Inuit Nunangat, and whose members are united by a common origin, history and culture.

Notes

Inuit are one of the three legally recognized Indigenous Peoples in Canada.

Since the term "Inuit" means "the people," the use of "the" and "people" is redundant and should be avoided in expressions such as "the Inuit" and "Inuit people."

See also

  • First Nations
  • Métis [2]
  • Inuk
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Inuk

Terms

  • Inuk (noun)

Definition

In Canada, an Indigenous person who inhabits, or whose ancestors traditionally inhabited, the northern regions and Arctic coasts of Canada known as Inuit Nunangat.

Notes

The plural of "Inuk" is "Inuit." The plural form "Inuuk" is also used when referring to two people.

See also

  • Métis [1]
  • First Nation person
  • Indigenous person
  • Inuit
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Islamophobia

Terms

  • Islamophobia (noun)

Definition

The fear or hatred of the religion of Islam or of Muslims that leads to discrimination, prejudice or hostility towards Muslims.

Notes

Islamophobia leads not only to acts of intolerance and racial profiling, but also to viewing and treating Muslims as a security threat.

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L

land acknowledgement

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language-based discrimination

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language discrimination

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LGBTQ2+

Terms

  • LGBTQ2+ (adjective)
  • lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, two-spirit and others (adjective phrase)
  • lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer, two-spirit and others (adjective phrase)

Notes

The symbol "+" represents the wide spectrum of gender identities, sexual orientations and romantic orientations not explicitly named.

Other letters or symbols are sometimes added to reflect different realities of sexual and gender diversity, for example, "I" for "intersex" or "A" for "asexual." Certain words can be abbreviated differently; for example, "two-spirit" can be abbreviated as "2S." The choice of letters or symbols and the order in which they are presented could differ depending on the context and the audience.

When there are two "Q"s in the abbreviation, the second "Q" stands for "questioning."

Some examples of possible abbreviations include: LGBT, LGBTI, LGBTQ, LGBTQ2, LGBTQ2S, LGBTQ2IA, LGBTQ2IA+, 2SLGBTQIA+, 2SLGBTQQIA+.

The terms that make up the abbreviations are defined in the Translation Bureau's Gender and Sexual Diversity Glossary.

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linguistic discrimination

Terms

  • linguistic discrimination (noun)
  • language discrimination (noun)
  • language-based discrimination (noun)

Definition

Discrimination against a person or group of people because of their language or the way they speak a language.

Notes

A person may be subject to linguistic discrimination for a variety of reasons, including their accent, vocabulary or syntax, the fact that they use a form of the dominant language that is considered inferior (for example, a dialect), or because they speak a language that is different from that spoken by the majority.

In a linguistic minority situation, a person may choose not to speak the language that is the subject of discrimination or may try to change their accent to avoid ridicule and exclusion. In some cases, people whose language is not the "standard" or dominant language may be disadvantaged in their career or education.

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lived experience

Terms

  • lived experience (noun)

Definition

The events in a person's life that lead to an intimate familiarity with a given subject.

Notes

A person's lived experience can be considered a significant source of knowledge for other people.

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M

marginalization

Terms

  • marginalization (noun)

Definition

The process where a person or group of people is excluded from full and meaningful participation in society, typically through discrimination or other means of oppression, resulting in reduced access to resources, opportunities and services.

Notes

Marginalization can occur on the basis of factors such as race, ethnicity, sex, gender, ability, age, religion, socioeconomic status, social class and geographic location.

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marginalized group

Terms

  • marginalized group (noun)

Definition

A group of people that is excluded from full and meaningful participation in society, typically through discrimination or other means of oppression.

Notes

Members of a marginalized group have reduced access to resources, opportunities and services.

A group of people can be marginalized on the basis of factors such as race, ethnicity, sex, gender, ability, age, religion, socioeconomic status, social class and geographic location.

See also

  • under-represented group
  • equity-denied group
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members of visible minorities

Terms

  • members of visible minorities (plural noun phrase)
  • visible minorities (plural noun)

Definition

Persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.Source 1 for term members of visible minorities

Notes

Although the terms "members of visible minorities" and "visible minorities" are used in legal and statistical contexts in Canada, they are considered outdated and can be inaccurate in a general context as they do not always reflect provincial, territorial or other regional demographic compositions in Canada. Also, the word "visible" suggests that being white is the standard and the word "minority" limits the concept to numbers, when it is in fact more often about the power that is held by a dominant group. In general contexts, it is preferable to use the term "racialized group."

It is widely recognized that certain terms used in the Employment Equity Act are outdated. The Act is currently under modernization review by the Employment Equity Act Review Task Force.

See also

  • racialized group
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mental disorder

Terms

  • mental disorder (noun)
  • mental health disorder (noun)
  • mental illness (noun)

Definition

A disorder characterized by a disruption in mental processes, mood or behaviour that generally causes distress or impairs a person's functioning in various areas of their life.

Notes

A person's strong emotional response to a difficult life event, such as the death of a loved one, is not necessarily indicative of a mental disorder. However, such events can increase a person's risk of developing one.

Examples of mental disorders include depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders and eating disorders.

See also

  • mental health
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mental health

Terms

  • mental health (noun)

Definition

A person's psychological and emotional well-being, usually characterized by their ability to meet their own needs, pursue their interests, achieve their goals and cope with the various stressors of life.

See also

  • mental disorder
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mental health disorder

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mental illness

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Métis [1]

Terms

  • Métis [1] (noun)
  • Metis [1] (noun)

Definition

In Canada, a person who has mixed First Nations and European ancestry and who self-identifies as Métis.

Notes

Métis self-identification is often controversial, and not all people who identify as Métis are necessarily accepted as members of the Métis Nation.

Many people and groups, particularly in the West and the North, have dropped the accent from Métis. Both spellings are acceptable in English; however, it is always best to ask which spelling the people and groups prefer.

See also

  • Indigenous person
  • First Nation person
  • Inuk
  • Métis [2]
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Métis [2]

Terms

  • Métis [2] (plural noun)
  • Metis [2] (plural noun)

Definition

In Canada, an Indigenous People whose members are of mixed First Nations and European ancestry, are united by a common origin, history and culture, and are generally accepted by the Métis Nation.

Notes

The Métis as a people came to be in the 18th century mainly with the development of the fur trade in west central North America. The mixing of the First Nations and European populations led to a growing number of mixed descendants. These descendants established distinct communities and married among themselves. A new Indigenous People emerged with its own culture, traditions, languages and nationhood.

Métis are one of the three legally recognized Indigenous Peoples in Canada and are rights holders under section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982.

Many people and groups, particularly in the West and the North, have dropped the accent from Métis. Both spellings are acceptable in English; however, it is always best to ask which spelling the people and groups prefer.

See also

  • First Nations
  • Inuit
  • Métis [1]
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microaggression

Terms

  • microaggression (noun)

Definition

A comment or action that is regarded as subtly expressing prejudice against a person or group of people.

Notes

Microaggressions are generally indirect and can be unintentional. Members of marginalized or minority groups are often the subjects of microaggressions.

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minority

Terms

  • minority (noun)
  • minority group (noun)

Definition

A group of people who share characteristics differing from those of the majority or dominant population, and who often experience discrimination or exclusion.

Notes

The term "minority" is not universally accepted, because it is usually understood as limiting the concept to numbers, when it is in fact more often about the power that is held by a dominant group.

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minority group

See minority

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model minority

Terms

  • model minority (noun)

Definition

A minority group that is perceived to have successfully integrated into society, particularly in academic, economic or cultural fields, especially in comparison to other minority groups.

Notes

The concept of a model minority may seem positive, but it carries negative connotations. Because it stems from stereotypes based on ethnic or racial characteristics, it erases the individuality of those within the group as well as the discrimination faced by its members. For example, certain Asian groups are stereotypically considered to excel at mathematics and science. This stereotype puts undue pressure on those belonging to these groups as the expectations of their successes in these fields are higher than for members of other groups. Such stereotypes can also lead to different minority groups being pitted against each other because their successes are not measured in the same way.

Usage examples

  • model minority myth
  • model minority stereotype
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N

neurodivergence

Terms

  • neurodivergence (noun)

Definition

A departure from what is considered typical in a person's neurological function or behavioural traits.

Notes

Neurodivergence can be innate or acquired through alterations in brain functioning caused by trauma or other experiences.

Examples of neurodivergence include autism, dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

See also

  • neurodivergent
  • neurodiversity
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neurodivergent

Terms

  • neurodivergent (adjective)

Definition

Referring to a person with neurological functioning or behavioural traits that differ from what is considered typical.

Notes

For example, people with autism, dyslexia or attention deficit disorder are considered neurodivergent.

The term "neurodiverse" is often mistakenly used to refer to a neurodivergent person. However, "neurodiverse" refers to the variety of neurological traits possessed by a group. Therefore, a person cannot be neurodiverse.

See also

  • neurodivergence
  • neurodiversity
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neurodiversity

Terms

  • neurodiversity (noun)

Definition

The variation in neurological functioning and behavioural traits considered as a normal phenomenon in the human population.

Notes

The concept of neurodiversity is inclusive as it encompasses both neurodivergent and neurotypical people.

See also

  • neurodivergence
  • neurodivergent
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non-Aboriginal person

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non-ceded

See unceded

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non-Indigenous person

Terms

  • non-Indigenous person (noun, Canada)
  • non-Aboriginal person (noun, Canada)
  • non-Native person (avoid, noun, Canada)

Definition

In Canada, a person who is not of Indigenous origin, that is, who does not belong to one of the three Indigenous Peoples, namely, First Nations, Inuit or Métis.

Notes

Some people refer to non-Indigenous people as settlers. It is an accepted practice in academic communities for a person to refer to themselves as a settler to not only acknowledge that they are not Indigenous, but that they are also on colonized land.

The term "non-Native person" should not be used by a non-Indigenous person as it is seen as derogatory.

See also

  • Indigenous person
  • First Nation person
  • Métis [1]
  • Inuk
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non-white

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non-white person

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O

official-language minority

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official-language minority community

Terms

  • official-language minority community (noun)
  • OLMC (noun)
  • official-language minority (noun)

Definition

A group of people whose first language or chosen language is an official language of a country, but is not the official language predominantly spoken in the geographic area where they live.

Notes

In Canada, official-language minority communities are mainly French-speaking people living outside the province of Quebec and English-speaking people living in the province of Quebec.

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OLMC

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P

people-first language

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person-first language

Terms

  • person-first language (noun)
  • people-first language (noun)

Definition

The written or verbal means of expression that communicates the identity of a person by putting emphasis on the person as an individual rather than on their impairment, disease, state or disorder.

Notes

Expressions such as "person with a disability," "person with autism," "person who is blind" and "person who is deaf" are examples of person-first language.

Person-first language is contrasted with identity-first language, which puts emphasis on an impairment, disease, state or disorder being integral to a person's identity.

There is no universally agreed-upon approach when referring to people with disabilities. Because some people with disabilities prefer person-first language and others prefer identity-first language, it is always best to ask a person with a disability how they prefer to be referred to.

In English, person-first language is usually used in administrative documents and in laws.

See also

  • identity-first language
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person of colour

Terms

  • person of colour (noun)
  • non-white person (noun)
  • non-white (noun)

Definition

A person who is especially of African, Asian or mixed racial or ethnic descent.

Notes

Although the words "of colour" in the term "person of colour" refer to skin colour, a person may be viewed as a person of colour on the basis of other physical characteristics such as hair texture or facial features.

Although the term "person of colour" is frequently used in verbal and written communication, its use is not universally accepted. Some people believe that its plural form, "people of colour," is an inclusive term used to forge solidarity, whereas others believe that it lumps together and blurs the distinct identities of all non-white people.

Some people prefer the term "person of colour" over "non-white person," or vice versa, for various reasons. For example, the term "person of colour" implies that "white" is not a colour, while the term "non-white person" implies that being a white person is the norm.

The term "person of colour" is generally used in a society composed predominantly of white people.

The noun "non-white" referring to a person is usually used in the plural form and typically in the context of population groups.

See also

  • Black, Indigenous and people of colour
  • racialized
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person with a disability

Terms

  • person with a disability (noun phrase)
  • disabled person (noun)
  • handicapped person (avoid, noun, obsolete)

Definition

A person with a physical, mental, intellectual, cognitive, sensory, learning or communication impairment, or a functional limitation, whether apparent or not, and permanent, temporary or episodic in nature, that hinders their full and equal participation in society when they face a barrier.

Notes

The plural form of "disability" is used in expressions such as "persons with disabilities" or "people with disabilities" to highlight the variety of disabilities present within a group.

The use of the adjective "handicapped" in the term "handicapped person" is considered to be outdated and can be considered offensive.

See also

  • disability
  • barrier
  • systemic barrier
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prejudice

See bias

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privilege

Terms

  • privilege (noun)

Definition

The advantages enjoyed by a person or group of people as a result of their membership in a given social group or category.

Usage examples

  • gender privilege
  • linguistic privilege
  • racial privilege
  • socioeconomic privilege
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R

race [1]

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race [2]

Terms

  • race [2] (noun)

Definition

A group of people who are arbitrarily categorized according to common physical characteristics, regardless of language, culture or nationality.

Notes

The concept of race has long since been used to establish differences between groups of people, often according to a hierarchy. It focuses on identifiable physical characteristics, such as skin colour, hair texture and facial features.

There is no scientific basis for the concept of race.

Refusing to talk about race could imply that racism and its consequences do not exist.

Not to be confused with the term "race" used to mean "ethnic group," which refers to a group of people with shared cultural, linguistic or religious characteristics.

See also

  • ethnic group
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racialization

Terms

  • racialization (noun)

Definition

The sociocultural process of categorizing people according to ethnic or racial characteristics and subjecting them to discrimination on that basis.

Notes

Ethnic characteristics include culture, language and religion. Racial characteristics include skin colour, hair texture and facial features.

Racialization occurs when races are seen as real, different and unequal in ways that negatively impact people in their social, political and economic lives.

There is no scientific basis for the concept of race.

See also

  • racialized
  • racialized group
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racialized

Terms

  • racialized (adjective)

Definition

Referring to a person or group of people categorized according to ethnic or racial characteristics and subjected to discrimination on that basis.

Notes

Ethnic characteristics include culture, language and religion. Racial characteristics include skin colour, hair texture and facial features.

The use of the term "racialized" acknowledges that race is a social construct that negatively impacts a person's social, political and economic life.

There is no scientific basis for the concept of race.

See also

  • racialization
  • racialized group
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racialized group

Terms

  • racialized group (noun)
  • racialized minority (noun)

Definition

A group of people categorized according to ethnic or racial characteristics and subjected to discrimination on that basis.

Notes

Ethnic characteristics include culture, language and religion. Racial characteristics include skin colour, hair texture and facial features.

The use of the term "racialized" acknowledges that race is a social construct that negatively impacts a person's social, political and economic life.

The term "racialized group" is preferred since the word "minority" in the term "racialized minority" is usually understood as limiting the concept to numbers when it is in fact more often about the power that is held by a dominant group.

The terms "racialized group" and "racialized minority" are often used as synonyms of "members of visible minorities" in the meaning of the Employment Equity Act. However, the concept of "racialized group" encompasses more than what is defined in the Act.

See also

  • members of visible minorities
  • racialization
  • racialized
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racialized minority

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racism [1]

Terms

  • racism [1] (noun)

Definition

An ideology that establishes a hierarchy between races or ethnic groups.

Notes

There is no scientific basis for the concept of race.

See also

  • racism [2]
  • race [2]
  • ethnic group
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racism [2]

Terms

  • racism [2] (noun)

Definition

Prejudice, hostility, discrimination, and even violence, whether conscious or not, against persons of a specific race or ethnic group.

Notes

Racism can be manifested through individual actions or systemic or institutional practices.

Racism also manifests itself in more subtle ways. It can, for example, happen in the form of discrimination based on the idea that certain cultures cannot be assimilated into the dominant or majority culture.

There is no scientific basis for the concept of race.

Usage examples

  • anti-Arab racism
  • anti-Asian racism
  • anti-Black racism
  • anti-Indigenous racism

See also

  • systemic racism
  • racism [1]
  • race [2]
  • ethnic group
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reconciliation

Terms

  • reconciliation (noun)

Definition

In the context of Crown-Indigenous relations, the process of repairing and improving relationships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples and governments. The acknowledgement of the past and present effects of colonialism in Canada is essential to this process.

Notes

In order for reconciliation to move forward, concrete actions must be taken by non-Indigenous people, governments and institutions to correct the historical and ongoing wrongs done to Indigenous Peoples.

First Nations, Inuit and Métis may have different perspectives on reconciliation, as these Peoples have not had the same experiences with colonialism.

See also

  • Indigenization
  • decolonization
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S

SAAB

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self-identification

Terms

  • self-identification (noun)

Definition

A person's own assertion of belonging to a certain group or category of people.

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sex

Terms

  • sex (noun)
  • biological sex (noun)

Definition

A defined set of anatomical and physiological characteristics, including chromosomes, gene expression, hormones, and reproductive or sexual anatomy.

Notes

Sex is usually categorized as female or male, but there is variation in the biological attributes that comprise sex and how those attributes appear. Often a person with these variations is characterized or self-identifies as intersex.

While sex refers to a set of anatomical and physiological characteristics, gender refers to a social construct.

For some people, sex is not static and can change in the course of a person's life.

See also

  • gender
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sex assigned at birth

Terms

  • sex assigned at birth (noun phrase)
  • SAAB (noun)
  • birth-assigned sex (noun)
  • assigned sex (noun)

Definition

The sex assigned to a person at birth according to a set of medical standards, usually based on the person's external genitalia.

Notes

Sex assigned at birth may also be understood as the sex recorded, for example, on a person's birth certificate.

Assigning sex at birth is not common to all cultures.

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sexism

Terms

  • sexism (noun)

Definition

Discrimination based on sex or on stereotypes related to gender, typically towards women.

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sexual orientation

Terms

  • sexual orientation (noun)

Definition

The physical or emotional attraction to people based on their sex, gender identity or gender expression.

Notes

Sexual orientation is not a choice, but a fundamental part of a person's identity. It may change over time.

A person may identify as lesbian, gay, heterosexual, bisexual, queer, pansexual or asexual, among others.

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shadeism

See colourism

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systemic barrier

Terms

  • systemic barrier (noun)

Definition

A barrier that results from seemingly neutral systems, practices, policies, traditions or cultures, and that disadvantages certain individuals or groups of people.

Notes

Systemic barriers disadvantage minority groups, racialized groups, people with disabilities, people from LGBTQ2+ communities, Indigenous people and other marginalized groups.

Systemic barriers are present in all aspects of society such as employment, education, institutions and health services.

Systemic barriers are not necessarily put in place intentionally.

See also

  • barrier
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systemic discrimination

Terms

  • systemic discrimination (noun)

Definition

Discrimination created and maintained by the seemingly neutral practices, policies, procedures and cultures of organizations and government structures.

See also

  • discrimination
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systemic racism

Terms

  • systemic racism (noun)

Definition

The discriminatory treatment of certain groups of people based on their race or ethnicity, caused and maintained by the apparently neutral practices, policies, procedures and cultures of organizations and governmental structures.

Notes

With systemic racism, recurring discriminatory behaviours are the result of an underlying structure, a system with roots that are long-standing and well integrated in society. The acceptance and trivialization of these discriminatory practices within organizations often make systemic racism difficult to detect and dismantle. Systemic racism also seeps into culture, particularly through stereotypes that lead to discrimination. It can therefore be perpetuated by individual behaviour, such as word choices, opinions and gestures.

This system of inequality grants privileges to people from the dominant group and undermines the rights of those from racialized groups.

See also

  • racism [2]
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T

territorial acknowledgement

Terms

  • territorial acknowledgement (noun)
  • land acknowledgement (noun)
  • territory acknowledgement (noun)

Definition

A statement recognizing that a person or group of people is on a territory currently or historically occupied by an Indigenous community and to which this community has spiritual, cultural or economic connections.

Notes

These statements are usually made towards the beginning of gatherings or official events as a sign of recognition and respect for Indigenous communities.

See also

  • traditional territory
  • unceded
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territory acknowledgement

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tokenism

Terms

  • tokenism (noun)

Definition

The practice of integrating people from minority or under-represented groups into a group or organization in order to appear inclusive or avoid accusations of discrimination.

Notes

People affected by tokenism may feel pressure to represent or speak on behalf of an entire group, as well as doubt their competence and the real reason they were hired or included in the group.

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traditional territory

Terms

  • traditional territory (noun)

Definition

Land identified by an Indigenous community as the territory it has historically occupied and used, and to which it still has spiritual, cultural and economic connections.

Notes

The traditional territories of Indigenous communities may overlap each other.

See also

  • territorial acknowledgement
  • unceded
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transphobia

Terms

  • transphobia (noun)

Definition

The disdain for or hatred of transgender people or people perceived as transgender that leads to discrimination or hostility towards them.

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Two-Spirit

Terms

  • Two-Spirit (adjective)
  • 2-spirit (adjective)

Definition

Referring to an Indigenous person in North America who embodies both female and male spirits or whose gender identity, sexual orientation or spiritual identity is not limited by the male/female dichotomy.

Notes

Indigenous views of gender are based on a person's spirit rather than on their physical being.

Before colonization, Two-Spirit people played a spiritual or other important role in their community. In many Indigenous cultures in North America, they were honoured and revered since they could move between the spirit and physical worlds and between genders. Today, many people associate the term "Two-Spirit" with this meaning.

The term "Two-Spirit" is used to reflect one of the many understandings of gender and sexuality in Indigenous cultures. Some Indigenous communities use other terms with specific meanings to refer to a person's role in their culture based on their gender identity or sexual orientation.

Not all Indigenous people from LGBTQ2+ communities identify as Two-Spirit.

A person who is not of Indigenous descent should not self-identify as Two-Spirit.

The term "Two-Spirit" was first introduced at the third annual intertribal Native American, First Nations, Gay and Lesbian Conference in Winnipeg, Manitoba, in 1990, and is a rough translation of the Anishinaabemowin (the Ojibwe language) word "niizh-manidoowag."

See also

  • Indigiqueer
  • LGBTQ2+
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U

unceded

Terms

  • unceded (adjective)
  • non-ceded (adjective)

Definition

Referring to traditional or ancestral land never transferred to the Crown or to the Government of Canada by an Indigenous community by means of a treaty or other agreement.

Usage examples

  • unceded land
  • unceded territory
  • unceded traditional territory

See also

  • traditional territory
  • territorial acknowledgement
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unconscious bias

Terms

  • unconscious bias (noun)
  • implicit bias (noun)
  • unconscious prejudice (noun)
  • implicit prejudice (noun)

Definition

A bias that a person has without them realizing it.

See also

  • bias
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unconscious prejudice

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under-represented group

Terms

  • under-represented group (noun)

Definition

A group of people whose representation within a given subgroup of society is lower than its representation in the general population.

Notes

For example, if a group of people represents 20% of the general population but only 10% of the employees in a given field of employment, it is considered to be an under-represented group in that employment field.

Groups generally considered to be under-represented include women, people with disabilities, Indigenous people, members of LGBTQ2+ communities and racialized groups.

Under-represented groups often face systemic barriers.

See also

  • equity-denied group
  • marginalized group
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V

visible minorities

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W

white

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white person

Terms

  • white person (noun)
  • white (noun, less frequent)
  • Caucasian (avoid, noun)

Definition

A person belonging to one of the population groups of especially European ancestry that are often considered as having light pigmentation of skin.

Notes

Although the noun "Caucasian" is sometimes used in North America to refer to a white person, this term refers to an obsolete and scientifically unfounded human classification system dating from the 18th century. The noun "Caucasian" used to mean "white person" should therefore be avoided.

Several North American English style guides recommend using the lowercase noun and adjective "white" when referring to people, citing among several reasons that there is no widespread championing to capitalize the term as there has been for the noun and adjective "Black." The use of the upper case noun and adjective "White" is, however, still present.

The noun "white" referring to a person is usually used in the plural form and typically in the context of population groups.

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X

xenophobia

Terms

  • xenophobia (noun)

Definition

The fear or hatred of people, cultures or customs that are foreign, or perceived to be foreign, that leads to discrimination or acts of hostility towards these people.

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Bibliography

References are presented in the language in which they were consulted at the time this guide was prepared. A reference available only in French is accompanied by a notice.

The hyperlinks provided below were active when this guide was established. Broken links (that no longer work) have been deactivated.

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